Welcome!

@CloudExpo Authors: Elizabeth White, Srinivasan Sundara Rajan, Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, David Paquette

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Microservices Expo

@CloudExpo: Article

Digital Forensic Challenges within Cloud Computing

Will cloud forensics be effective in managing boundaries of responsibility and access?

Proponents of the cloud ecosystem touts its "vastness, flexibility and scalability as advantages for the implementation of cloud services. However, from a digital point of view this can be a veritable forensic challenge as we view the cloud in terms of its scope and diversity.

According to Dr. Stephen Wolthusen[1] "Digital forensics (also referred to at times as computer forensics) encompasses approaches and techniques for gathering and analyzing traces of human and computer-generated activity in such a way that it is suitable in a court of law."

A key challenge to a digital investigator called to pursue an investigation with cloud resources as a subset will be to establish and map computational and storage structures that will fall within the realm of the investigation. Bear in mind that for any system (cloud or otherwise) security incidents will cross boundaries of responsibility and access.[2]

Within the digital forensic process where there is a no one-size-fits-all solution for a digital forensic examination, all forensic evidence must follow the Forensic process of :

Collection - Examination - Analysis - Reporting. Also no matter its environment, forensic evidence must:

  • Be relevant to the issue at hand
  • Be authentic
  • Not be unfairly prejudicial not be hearsay or if hearsay, able to meet the requirements for an exception
  • Be the original or duplicate of the evidence or able to meet an exception to that rule.

Within the cloud computing ecosystem I believe there may be a dilemma in terms of time stamps. A question for cloud vendors would be, with a distributed and "vast" infrastructure how will they ensure synchronized clocks across all their systems? Synchronized clocks across a distributed global system may not be a possibility, and if this supposition holds true, then what other solution will a cloud vendor provide in such an instance?

Another challenge can be with that of reciprocity. Digital forensics within the cloud computing environment can have legal implications within an international jurisdiction which will require corporation from established relationships with legal entities in foreign countries and/or the establishment of new ones if possible.

As with any live forensic examination another challenge will be the establishing of snapshots of the system in operation. But in this case one can question if this is good enough for such a "vast" and possibly globally distributed ecosystem.

Take the instance of malware injected into the kernel space of a system; it is possible that it may be programmed to modify data or functionality...or both, in a variety of ways upon detection of a probe, or simply set to shut-down,obfuscate evidence, or delete pertinent data residues within a set time frame. Can a forensic examiner be notified of this change, or more pertinent can a cloud service provider implement protocols, tools or processes to ensure that such an event can be mitigated in real time? Most likely not, at least for now.

However a solution of sorts to this dilemma can be gleaned from thesis suggested in a paper by Wolthusen [1] which states: Data may be present or available in a given configuration for a limited time or be staged through different levels of storage hierarchies; it is hence important to place bounds on events in question so as to be able to capture events of interest completely.

In terms of the "vast" distributed environment that can comprise a cloud ecosystem under investigation; we have to be aware of the fact that within such an ecosystem, any forensic investigation can cause: parallel or unrelated services to be interrupted to completed halted, infringe on third party rights and cross jurisdictional boundaries and in the case of duplication require infeasible storage volumes. [1]

Aspects of Control within Cloud Computing Service Models:

SaaS: Here the cloud user, dependent on their contracted services with the cloud vendor will only control certain configuration parameters, whilst the cloud vendor maintain control over application\s and underlying infrastructure.

PaaS: Here the cloud vendor controls the cloud infrastructure and runtime environments when the cloud user controls the application.

IaaS: Although a cloud user will have control over their servers with the installed Operating Systems and applications with this cloud offering the cloud vendor will still controls the virtualization infrastructure and at least parts of the network infrastructure.

These aspects will affect how a digital forensic examination is conducted as, every cloud computing environment will have variations. Therefore the degrees of methods/tools protocols etc. implemented in identifying relevant events that support the detection and analysis of attacks have to be crafted accordingly.

Four Forensic Challenges within the Cloud Ecosystem
Grobauer and Schreck [2] identified the following forensic challenges within the cloud computing environment:

  1. Separation of customer's data sources during evidence collection
  2. Adapting forensic analysis methods to the cloud
  3. Improving live analysis techniques
  4. Improving log generation & analysis techniques

Another major challenge is a need to establish a complete understanding of processes, their dependencies and distribution across different systems within the cloud ecosystem. [1]

Wolthusen[1] also states that, "if semantic dependencies must be captured, this must not only capture the immediate data required to reconstruct a view or document or to recreate and reconstruct a process, but also sufficient information to ascertain the semantics of the event at the point in time of the event."

However would not the establishment of such a process potentially impact customers not involved in an investigation that are sharing the cloud-space that is part of a cloud forensic examination?

Despite the semantics and challenges of the Cloud Computing Environment it is my opinion that:

Cloud Computing users must open dialogue with their vendor regarding processes and protocols for successfully handling/managing incidents. These need to be clearly established within the requirements portion, when drafting their service level agreement (SLA).

References

  1. Overcast: Forensic Discovery in Cloud Environments -Stephen D. Wolthusen
  2. Towards Incident Handling in the Cloud:Challenges and Approaches -Bernd Grobauer,Thomas Schreck

More Stories By Jon Shende

Jon RG Shende is an executive with over 18 years of industry experience. He commenced his career, in the medical arena, then moved into the Oil and Gas environment where he was introduced to SCADA and network technologies,also becoming certified in Industrial Pump and Valve repairs. Jon gained global experience over his career working within several verticals to include pharma, medical sales and marketing services as well as within the technology services environment, eventually becoming the youngest VP of an international enterprise. He is a graduate of the University of Oxford, holds a Masters certificate in Business Administration, as well as an MSc in IT Security, specializing in Computer Crime and Forensics with a thesis on security in the Cloud. Jon, well versed with the technology startup and mid sized venture ecosystems, has contributed at the C and Senior Director level for former clients. As an IT Security Executive, Jon has experience with Virtualization,Strategy, Governance,Risk Management, Continuity and Compliance. He was an early adopter of web-services, web-based tools and successfully beta tested a remote assistance and support software for a major telecom. Within the realm of sales, marketing and business development, Jon earned commendations for turnaround strategies within the services and pharma industry. For one pharma contract he was responsibe for bringing low performing districts up to number 1 rankings for consecutive quarters; as well as outperforming quotas from 125% up to 314%. Part of this was achieved by working closely with sales and marketing teams to ensure message and product placement were on point. Professionally he is a Fellow of the BCS Chartered Institute for IT, an HITRUST Certified CSF Practitioner and holds the CITP and CRISC certifications.Jon Shende currently works as a Senior Director for a CSP. A recognised thought Leader, Jon has been invited to speak for the SANs Institute, has spoken at Cloud Expo in New York as well as sat on a panel at Cloud Expo Santa Clara, and has been an Ernst and Young CPE conference speaker. His personal blog is located at http://jonshende.blogspot.com/view/magazine "We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, therefore, is not an act, but a habit."

@CloudExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that Pulzze Systems will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Pulzze Systems, Inc. provides infrastructure products for the Internet of Things to enable any connected device and system to carry out matched operations without programming. For more information, visit http://www.pulzzesystems.com.
DevOps at Cloud Expo – being held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA – announces that its Call for Papers is open. Born out of proven success in agile development, cloud computing, and process automation, DevOps is a macro trend you cannot afford to miss. From showcase success stories from early adopters and web-scale businesses, DevOps is expanding to organizations of all sizes, including the world's largest enterprises – and delivering real results. Am...
If you’re responsible for an application that depends on the data or functionality of various IoT endpoints – either sensors or devices – your brand reputation depends on the security, reliability, and compliance of its many integrated parts. If your application fails to deliver the expected business results, your customers and partners won't care if that failure stems from the code you developed or from a component that you integrated. What can you do to ensure that the endpoints work as expect...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Secure Channels will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. The bedrock of Secure Channels Technology is a uniquely modified and enhanced process based on superencipherment. Superencipherment is the process of encrypting an already encrypted message one or more times, either using the same or a different algorithm.
The Internet of Things can drive efficiency for airlines and airports. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Shyam Varan Nath, Principal Architect with GE, and Sudip Majumder, senior director of development at Oracle, will discuss the technical details of the connected airline baggage and related social media solutions. These IoT applications will enhance travelers' journey experience and drive efficiency for the airlines and the airports. The session will include a working demo and a technical d...
WebRTC adoption has generated a wave of creative uses of communications and collaboration through websites, sales apps, customer care and business applications. As WebRTC has become more mainstream it has evolved to use cases beyond the original peer-to-peer case, which has led to a repeating requirement for interoperability with existing infrastructures. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Graham Holt, Executive Vice President of Daitan Group, will cover implementation examples that have enabled ea...
Almost two-thirds of companies either have or soon will have IoT as the backbone of their business in 2016. However, IoT is far more complex than most firms expected. How can you not get trapped in the pitfalls? In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tony Shan, a renowned visionary and thought leader, will introduce a holistic method of IoTification, which is the process of IoTifying the existing technology and business models to adopt and leverage IoT. He will drill down to the components in this fra...
SYS-CON Events announced today the Enterprise IoT Bootcamp, being held November 1-2, 2016, in conjunction with 19th Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Combined with real-world scenarios and use cases, the Enterprise IoT Bootcamp is not just based on presentations but with hands-on demos and detailed walkthroughs. We will introduce you to a variety of real world use cases prototyped using Arduino, Raspberry Pi, BeagleBone, Spark, and Intel Edison. Y...
Most of us already know that adopting new cloud applications can boost a business’s productivity by enabling organizations to be more agile and ready to change course in our fast-moving and connected digital world. But the rapid adoption of cloud apps and services also brings with it profound security threats, including visibility and control challenges that aren’t present in traditional on-premises environments. At the same time, the cloud – because of its interconnected, flexible and adaptable...
Technology vendors and analysts are eager to paint a rosy picture of how wonderful IoT is and why your deployment will be great with the use of their products and services. While it is easy to showcase successful IoT solutions, identifying IoT systems that missed the mark or failed can often provide more in the way of key lessons learned. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Peter Vanderminden, Principal Industry Analyst for IoT & Digital Supply Chain to Flatiron Strategies, will focus on how IoT de...
Fact is, enterprises have significant legacy voice infrastructure that’s costly to replace with pure IP solutions. How can we bring this analog infrastructure into our shiny new cloud applications? There are proven methods to bind both legacy voice applications and traditional PSTN audio into cloud-based applications and services at a carrier scale. Some of the most successful implementations leverage WebRTC, WebSockets, SIP and other open source technologies. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Da...
SYS-CON Events announced today that China Unicom will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. China United Network Communications Group Co. Ltd ("China Unicom") was officially established in 2009 on the basis of the merger of former China Netcom and former China Unicom. China Unicom mainly operates a full range of telecommunications services including mobile broadband (GSM, WCDMA, LTE F...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Roundee / LinearHub will exhibit at the WebRTC Summit at @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. LinearHub provides Roundee Service, a smart platform for enterprise video conferencing with enhanced features such as automatic recording and transcription service. Slack users can integrate Roundee to their team via Slack’s App Directory, and '/roundee' command lets your video conference ...
DevOps at Cloud Expo, taking place Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long dev...
There is growing need for data-driven applications and the need for digital platforms to build these apps. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Muddu Sudhakar, VP and GM of Security & IoT at Splunk, will cover different PaaS solutions and Big Data platforms that are available to build applications. In addition, AI and machine learning are creating new requirements that developers need in the building of next-gen apps. The next-generation digital platforms have some of the past platform needs a...
Without a clear strategy for cost control and an architecture designed with cloud services in mind, costs and operational performance can quickly get out of control. To avoid multiple architectural redesigns requires extensive thought and planning. Boundary (now part of BMC) launched a new public-facing multi-tenant high resolution monitoring service on Amazon AWS two years ago, facing challenges and learning best practices in the early days of the new service. In his session at 19th Cloud Exp...
I'm a lonely sensor. I spend all day telling the world how I'm feeling, but none of the other sensors seem to care. I want to be connected. I want to build relationships with other sensors to be more useful for my human. I want my human to understand that when my friends next door are too hot for a while, I'll soon be flaming. And when all my friends go outside without me, I may be left behind. Don't just log my data; use the relationship graph. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ryan Boyd, Engi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Numerex Corp, a leading provider of managed enterprise solutions enabling the Internet of Things (IoT), will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Numerex Corp. (NASDAQ:NMRX) is a leading provider of managed enterprise solutions enabling the Internet of Things (IoT). The Company's solutions produce new revenue streams or create operating...
Information technology is an industry that has always experienced change, and the dramatic change sweeping across the industry today could not be truthfully described as the first time we've seen such widespread change impacting customer investments. However, the rate of the change, and the potential outcomes from today's digital transformation has the distinct potential to separate the industry into two camps: Organizations that see the change coming, embrace it, and successful leverage it; and...
While DevOps promises a better and tighter integration among an organization’s development and operation teams and transforms an application life cycle into a continual deployment, Chef and Azure together provides a speedy, cost-effective and highly scalable vehicle for realizing the business values of this transformation. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 19th Cloud Expo, Yung Chou, a Technology Evangelist at Microsoft, will present a unique opportunity to witness how Chef and Azure work tog...