Welcome!

Cloud Expo Authors: Jason Bloomberg, Elizabeth White, Roger Strukhoff, Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski

Related Topics: Cloud Expo, SOA & WOA

Cloud Expo: Article

SaaS - Multi-Tenant Database Design Options

Making the best out of dynamic infrastructure with database design

Cloud Business Profitability & Infrastructure Efficiency
Your survival as a SaaS provider depends on how efficient is your software service with respect to resource utilization, so that you spend the least on your capital and operational expenditure  and you can transform your cost benefits to your customers resulting in more recognition for your products and service.

We have also seen that most of the IaaS pricing, that is the platform you host your applications  are charged per the usage, based on the  instance power and the amount of data transferred, for example let us  see the factors in the Amazon EC2 pricing :

Standard On-Demand Instances

Linux/UNIX Usage

Windows Usage

Small (Default)

$0.085 per hour

$0.12 per hour

Large

$0.34 per hour

$0.48 per hour

Extra Large

$0.68 per hour

$0.96 per hour

Again an instance is considered Small, Large , Extra Large based on the amount of memory and  CPU usage .

Standard On-Demand Instances

CPU

Memory

Small (Default)

1 EC2 Compute Unit

1.7 GB

Large

4 EC2 Compute Unit

7.5 GB

Extra Large

8 EC2 Compute Unit

15 GB

 

With Amazon Elastic Block Store, you only pay for what you use. Volume storage is charged by the amount you allocate until you release it, and is priced at a rate of $0.10 per allocated GB per month Amazon EBS also charges $0.10 per 1 million I/O requests you make to your volume.

So the heavier your application is, the higher the cost of cloud computing for your application, and the multi-tenant database design plays a vital part here.

Three Options for Multi-Tenant Database Design

  1. Separate Database: Each of the tenants  is allocated a separate physical database  for storing their data.
  2. Separate Schema: Each of the tenants  is allocated a separate logical unit called Schema, within a single physical database .
  3. Separate Rows: Each of the tenants  is allocated  same physical database and schema, but their information is separated using  primary keys which are allocated as part of the data base design and all the information is kept within the same physical tables.

The following diagram provides a quick snapshot of these three models. Diagram utilizes the IaaS model of Amazon AWS on which you can host your SaaS applications.

Attributes Influencing The Cloud Database Multi Tenant Design
As evident, these three models  will fit the needs of a cloud service provider; however, the following attributes needs to considered before choosing either one of the model.

Attribute

Separate Database

Separate Schema

Separate Rows

Tenants are large enterprise customers who could store large amounts of data in TB or 100s of GB

Good

Fair

Poor

Tenants are individual consumers  with low or moderate storage of data like a  social networking site

Poor

Fair

Good

Rapid provisioning is the key, risk of losing business exists  if the response is not quick, customers select the service on the fly

Fair

Fair

Good

Customers can opt out of  (Cancel ) service at a faster rate and  space reclamation is not a concern

Good

Good

Fair

Customer can opt out of (Cancel) service at a faster rate and space reclamation is a concern

Good

Good

Poor

The business logic of your SaaS application is highly customized with respect to the Tenant

Good

Good

Poor

Application is prone to database locks

Good

Fair

Poor

Security and Legal Requirements require data separation, even if the application controls it

Good

Fair

Poor

Performance tuning is a concern and reports performance should be based on the volume of data

Good

Fair

Poor

Administration and maintenance of Schema and  database code is a concern

Poor

Poor

Good

Scalability is a concern

Good

Fair

Poor

Frequent Changes to the Application Possible

Poor

Poor

Good

Data is mission critical and Point In Time Recovery is needed in case of a crash

Good

Fair

Poor

The list is not complete and there could be more attributes, however  these major attributes play an important role in determining the multi tenant database design for your SaaS application.

More Stories By Srinivasan Sundara Rajan

I am passionate about ownership and driving things on my own, with my breadth and depth on Enterprise Technology I could run any aspect of IT Industry and make it a success. I am a Seasoned Enterprise IT Expert, mainly in the areas of Solution,Integration and Architecture, across Structured, Unstructured data sources, especially in manufacturing domain. My recent work is on Natural Language Processing, Semantic Enrichment of Unstructured Data, Data Mining and Predictive Analytics. However I have a strong footing across all tiers of Enterprise IT spectrum. I am geared to handle the massive flow of data by Internet Of Things with appropriate platform, tools and processes.

Cloud Expo Latest Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that TechXtend (formerly Programmer’s Paradise), a leading value-added provider of server and storage virtualization, and r-evolution will exhibit at SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. TechXtend (formerly Programmer’s Paradise) is a leading value-added provider of software, systems and solutions for corporations, government organizations, and academic institutions across the United States and Canada. TechXtend is the Exclusive Reseller in the United States for r-evolution
The consumption economy is here and so are cloud applications and solutions that offer more than subscription and flat fee models and at the same time are available on a pure consumption model, which not only reduces IT spend but also lowers infrastructure costs, and offers ease of use and availability. In their session at 15th Cloud Expo, Ermanno Bonifazi, CEO & Founder of Solgenia, and Ian Khan, Global Strategic Positioning & Brand Manager at Solgenia, will discuss this shifting dynamic with an example of a top European Telco provider. Find out how they are leveraging the power of acloud-based consumption model services to offer more value to the mass market and enable a new revenue model that embraces the true meaning of the Third Industrial Revolution.
The emergence of cloud computing and Big Data warrants a greater role for the PMO to successfully manage enterprise transformation driven by these powerful trends. As the adoption of cloud-based services continues to grow, a governance model is needed to orchestrate enterprise cloud implementations and harness the power of Big Data analytics. In his session at 15th Cloud Expo, Mahesh Singh, President of BigData, Inc., to discuss how the Enterprise PMO takes center stage not only in developing the appropriate governance model but also in collaborating with key stakeholders to ensure a successful transformation.
Every healthy ecosystem is diverse. This is especially true in cloud ecosystems, where portability and interoperability are more important than old enterprise models of proprietary ownership. In his session at 15th Cloud Expo, Mark Baker, Server Product Manager at Canonical/Ubuntu, will discuss how single vendors used to take the lead in creating and delivering technology, but in a cloud economy, where users want tools of their preference, when and where they need them, it makes no sense.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloudian, Inc., the leading provider of hybrid cloud storage solutions, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Cloudian is a Foster City, Calif.-based software company specializing in cloud storage. Cloudian HyperStore® is an S3-compatible cloud object storage platform that enables service providers and enterprises to build reliable, affordable and scalable hybrid cloud storage solutions. Cloudian actively partners with leading cloud computing environments including Amazon Web Services, Citrix Cloud Platform, Apache CloudStack, OpenStack and the vast ecosystem of S3 compatible tools and applications. Cloudian's customers include Vodafone, Nextel, NTT, Nifty, and LunaCloud. The company has additional offices in China and Japan.
In today's application economy, enterprise organizations realize that it's their applications that are the heart and soul of their business. If their application users have a bad experience, their revenue and reputation are at stake. In his session at 15th Cloud Expo, Anand Akela, Senior Director of Product Marketing for Application Performance Management at CA Technologies, will discuss how a user-centric Application Performance Management solution can help inspire your users with every application transaction.
Come learn about what you need to consider when moving your data to the cloud. In her session at 15th Cloud Expo, Skyla Loomis, a Program Director of Cloudant Development at Cloudant, will discuss the security, performance, and operational implications of keeping your data on premise, moving it to the cloud, or taking a hybrid approach. She will use real customer examples to illustrate the tradeoffs, key decision points, and how to be successful with a cloud or hybrid cloud solution.
Cloud computing started a technology revolution; now DevOps is driving that revolution forward. By enabling new approaches to service delivery, cloud and DevOps together are delivering even greater speed, agility, and efficiency. No wonder leading innovators are adopting DevOps and cloud together! In his session at DevOps Summit, Andi Mann, Vice President of Strategic Solutions at CA Technologies, will explore the synergies in these two approaches, with practical tips, techniques, research data, war stories, case studies, and recommendations.
The 16th International Cloud Expo announces that its Call for Papers is now open. 16th International Cloud Expo, to be held June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City brings together Cloud Computing, APM, APIs, Security, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal today!
14th International Cloud Expo, held on June 10–12, 2014 at the Javits Center in New York City, featured three content-packed days with a rich array of sessions about the business and technical value of cloud computing, Internet of Things, Big Data, and DevOps led by exceptional speakers from every sector of the IT ecosystem. The Cloud Expo series is the fastest-growing Enterprise IT event in the past 10 years, devoted to every aspect of delivering massively scalable enterprise IT as a service.
Hardware will never be more valuable than on the day it hits your loading dock. Each day new servers are not deployed to production the business is losing money. While Moore’s Law is typically cited to explain the exponential density growth of chips, a critical consequence of this is rapid depreciation of servers. The hardware for clustered systems (e.g., Hadoop, OpenStack) tends to be significant capital expenses. In his session at 15th Cloud Expo, Mason Katz, CTO and co-founder of StackIQ, to discuss how infrastructure teams should be aware of the capitalization and depreciation model of these expenses to fully understand when and where automation is critical.
Over the last few years the healthcare ecosystem has revolved around innovations in Electronic Health Record (HER) based systems. This evolution has helped us achieve much desired interoperability. Now the focus is shifting to other equally important aspects – scalability and performance. While applying cloud computing environments to the EHR systems, a special consideration needs to be given to the cloud enablement of Veterans Health Information Systems and Technology Architecture (VistA), i.e., the largest single medical system in the United States.
In his session at 15th Cloud Expo, Mark Hinkle, Senior Director, Open Source Solutions at Citrix Systems Inc., will provide overview of the open source software that can be used to deploy and manage a cloud computing environment. He will include information on storage, networking(e.g., OpenDaylight) and compute virtualization (Xen, KVM, LXC) and the orchestration(Apache CloudStack, OpenStack) of the three to build their own cloud services. Speaker Bio: Mark Hinkle is the Senior Director, Open Source Solutions, at Citrix Systems Inc. He joined Citrix as a result of their July 2011 acquisition of Cloud.com where he was their Vice President of Community. He is currently responsible for Citrix open source efforts around the open source cloud computing platform, Apache CloudStack and the Xen Hypervisor. Previously he was the VP of Community at Zenoss Inc., a producer of the open source application, server, and network management software, where he grew the Zenoss Core project to over 10...
Most of today’s hardware manufacturers are building servers with at least one SATA Port, but not every systems engineer utilizes them. This is considered a loss in the game of maximizing potential storage space in a fixed unit. The SATADOM Series was created by Innodisk as a high-performance, small form factor boot drive with low power consumption to be plugged into the unused SATA port on your server board as an alternative to hard drive or USB boot-up. Built for 1U systems, this powerful device is smaller than a one dollar coin, and frees up otherwise dead space on your motherboard. To meet the requirements of tomorrow’s cloud hardware, Innodisk invested internal R&D resources to develop our SATA III series of products. The SATA III SATADOM boasts 500/180MBs R/W Speeds respectively, or double R/W Speed of SATA II products.
As more applications and services move "to the cloud" (public or on-premise) cloud environments are increasingly adopting and building out traditional enterprise features. This in turn is enabling and encouraging cloud adoption from enterprise users. In many ways the definition is blurring as features like continuous operation, geo-distribution or on-demand capacity become the norm. NuoDB is involved in both building enterprise software and using enterprise cloud capabilities. In his session at 15th Cloud Expo, Seth Proctor, CTO at NuoDB, Inc., will discuss the experiences from building, deploying and using enterprise services and suggest some ways to approach moving enterprise applications into a cloud model.