Click here to close now.

Welcome!

Cloud Expo Authors: JP Morgenthal, Liz McMillan, Lori MacVittie, Elizabeth White, Roger Strukhoff

Related Topics: Cloud Expo, MICROSERVICES

Cloud Expo: Article

SaaS - Multi-Tenant Database Design Options

Making the best out of dynamic infrastructure with database design

Cloud Business Profitability & Infrastructure Efficiency
Your survival as a SaaS provider depends on how efficient is your software service with respect to resource utilization, so that you spend the least on your capital and operational expenditure  and you can transform your cost benefits to your customers resulting in more recognition for your products and service.

We have also seen that most of the IaaS pricing, that is the platform you host your applications  are charged per the usage, based on the  instance power and the amount of data transferred, for example let us  see the factors in the Amazon EC2 pricing :

Standard On-Demand Instances

Linux/UNIX Usage

Windows Usage

Small (Default)

$0.085 per hour

$0.12 per hour

Large

$0.34 per hour

$0.48 per hour

Extra Large

$0.68 per hour

$0.96 per hour

Again an instance is considered Small, Large , Extra Large based on the amount of memory and  CPU usage .

Standard On-Demand Instances

CPU

Memory

Small (Default)

1 EC2 Compute Unit

1.7 GB

Large

4 EC2 Compute Unit

7.5 GB

Extra Large

8 EC2 Compute Unit

15 GB

 

With Amazon Elastic Block Store, you only pay for what you use. Volume storage is charged by the amount you allocate until you release it, and is priced at a rate of $0.10 per allocated GB per month Amazon EBS also charges $0.10 per 1 million I/O requests you make to your volume.

So the heavier your application is, the higher the cost of cloud computing for your application, and the multi-tenant database design plays a vital part here.

Three Options for Multi-Tenant Database Design

  1. Separate Database: Each of the tenants  is allocated a separate physical database  for storing their data.
  2. Separate Schema: Each of the tenants  is allocated a separate logical unit called Schema, within a single physical database .
  3. Separate Rows: Each of the tenants  is allocated  same physical database and schema, but their information is separated using  primary keys which are allocated as part of the data base design and all the information is kept within the same physical tables.

The following diagram provides a quick snapshot of these three models. Diagram utilizes the IaaS model of Amazon AWS on which you can host your SaaS applications.

Attributes Influencing The Cloud Database Multi Tenant Design
As evident, these three models  will fit the needs of a cloud service provider; however, the following attributes needs to considered before choosing either one of the model.

Attribute

Separate Database

Separate Schema

Separate Rows

Tenants are large enterprise customers who could store large amounts of data in TB or 100s of GB

Good

Fair

Poor

Tenants are individual consumers  with low or moderate storage of data like a  social networking site

Poor

Fair

Good

Rapid provisioning is the key, risk of losing business exists  if the response is not quick, customers select the service on the fly

Fair

Fair

Good

Customers can opt out of  (Cancel ) service at a faster rate and  space reclamation is not a concern

Good

Good

Fair

Customer can opt out of (Cancel) service at a faster rate and space reclamation is a concern

Good

Good

Poor

The business logic of your SaaS application is highly customized with respect to the Tenant

Good

Good

Poor

Application is prone to database locks

Good

Fair

Poor

Security and Legal Requirements require data separation, even if the application controls it

Good

Fair

Poor

Performance tuning is a concern and reports performance should be based on the volume of data

Good

Fair

Poor

Administration and maintenance of Schema and  database code is a concern

Poor

Poor

Good

Scalability is a concern

Good

Fair

Poor

Frequent Changes to the Application Possible

Poor

Poor

Good

Data is mission critical and Point In Time Recovery is needed in case of a crash

Good

Fair

Poor

The list is not complete and there could be more attributes, however  these major attributes play an important role in determining the multi tenant database design for your SaaS application.

More Stories By Srinivasan Sundara Rajan

Srinivasan is passionate about ownership and driving things on his own, with his breadth and depth on Enterprise Technology he could run any aspect of IT Industry and make it a success.

He is a seasoned Enterprise IT Expert, mainly in the areas of Solution, Integration and Architecture, across Structured, Unstructured data sources, especially in manufacturing domain.

He currently works as Technology Head For GAVS Technologies.

@CloudExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that FierceDevOps will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. FierceDevOps keeps software developers and IT operations personnel updated on the latest news and trends around the rapidly evolving role of the traditional IT worker.
WHOA.com has announced the newest addition to its data center footprint with the expansion into Equinix's newest state-of-the-art facility: DC-11 Washington, DC IBX+. Located in Ashburn, VA, this data center expands Whoa.com's presence to meet rapidly expanding customer demand for secure cloud solutions. Equinix, Inc. operates International Business Exchange™ (IBX®) data centers in 32 markets across 15 countries in the Americas, EMEA, and Asia-Pacific. Equinix is committed to operating faciliti...
SYS-CON Events announced today that robomq.io will exhibit at SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. robomq.io is an interoperable and composable platform that connects any device to any application. It helps systems integrators and the solution providers build new and innovative products and service for industries requiring monitoring or intelligence from devices and sensors.
Today, IT is not just a cost center. IT is an enabler and driver of business. With the emergence of the hybrid cloud paradigm, IT now has increasingly more capabilities to create new strategic opportunities for a business. Hybrid cloud allows an organization to utilize multi-tenant public clouds, dedicated private clouds, bare metal hosting, and the associated support and services for the right use cases through an on-demand, XaaS model. This model of IT creates tremendous opportunities for busi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that the DevOps Institute has been named “Association Sponsor” of SYS-CON's DevOps Summit, which will take place on June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The DevOps Institute provides enterprise level training and certification. Working with thought leaders from the DevOps community, the IT Service Management field and the IT training market, the DevOps Institute is setting the standard in quality for DevOps education and training.
Business as usual for IT is evolving into a “Make or Buy” decision on a service-by-service conversation with input from the LOBs. How does your organization move forward with cloud? In his general session at 16th Cloud Expo, Paul Maravei, Regional Sales Manager, Hybrid Cloud and Managed Services at Cisco, discusses how Cisco and its partners offer a market-leading portfolio and ecosystem of cloud infrastructure and application services that allow you to uniquely and securely combine cloud busi...
Businesses are looking to empower employees and departments to do more, go faster, and streamline their processes. For all workers – but mobile workers especially – utilizing the cloud to reconnect documents and improve processes without destructing existing workflows can have a dramatic impact on productivity. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Mark Grilli, vice president of Acrobat Solutions marketing at Adobe Systems Incorporated, will outline new ways that the cloud is changing the way peo...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Solgenia will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Solgenia is the global market leader in Cloud Collaboration and Cloud Infrastructure software solutions. Designed to “Bridge the Gap” between Personal and Professional S...
SYS-CON Events announced today that QTS Realty Trust, one of the nation’s largest and fastest-growing providers of data center facilities and cloud services and a leader in security and compliance, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. QTS Realty Trust, Inc. (NYSE: QTS) is a leading national provider of data center solutions and fully managed services, and a leader in security and compliance...
SYS-CON Events announced today that WSM International (WSM), the world’s leading cloud and server migration services provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. WSM is a solutions integrator with a core focus on cloud and server migration, transformation and DevOps services.
SYS-CON Events announced today that MangoApps will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY., and the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MangoApps provides private all-in-one social intranets allowing workers to securely collaborate from anywhere in the world and from any device. Social, mobile, and eas...
WSM International has launched a DevOps services division that offers assessment, consulting and implementation to large enterprises and organizations with complex infrastructures. The concept of DevOps is to blend information technology (IT) software development with operations to optimize the computing infrastructure according to the specific needs of the organization. According to a recent press release from Gartner, "By 2016, DevOps will evolve from a niche strategy employed by large cloud ...
Sematext is a globally distributed organization that builds innovative Cloud and On Premises solutions for performance monitoring, alerting and anomaly detection (SPM), log management and analytics (Logsene), and search analytics (SSA). We also provide Search and Big Data consulting services and offer 24/7 production support for Solr and Elasticsearch.
The speed of software changes in growing and large scale rapid-paced DevOps environments presents a challenge for continuous testing. Many organizations struggle to get this right. Practices that work for small scale continuous testing may not be sufficient as the requirements grow. In his session at DevOps Summit, Marc Hornbeek, Sr. Solutions Architect of DevOps continuous test solutions at Spirent Communications, will explain the best practices of continuous testing at high scale, which is r...
Modern Systems announced completion of a successful project with its new Rapid Program Modernization (eavRPMa"c) software. The eavRPMa"c technology architecturally transforms legacy applications, enabling faster feature development and reducing time-to-market for critical software updates. Working with Modern Systems, the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) leveraged eavRPMa"c to transform its Student Information System from Software AG's Natural syntax to a modern application lev...
Plutora provides enterprise release management and test environment SaaS solutions to clients in North America, Europe and Asia Pacific. Leading companies across a variety of industries, including financial services, telecommunications, retail, pharmaceutical and media, rely on Plutora's SaaS solutions to orchestrate releases and environments faster and with integrity. Products include Plutora Release Manager, Plutora Test Environment Manager and Plutora Deployment Manager.
Hosted PaaS providers have given independent developers and startups huge advantages in efficiency and reduced time-to-market over their more process-bound counterparts in enterprises. Software frameworks are now available that allow enterprise IT departments to provide these same advantages for developers in their own organization. In his workshop session at DevOps Summit, Troy Topnik, ActiveState’s Technical Product Manager, will show how on-prem or cloud-hosted Private PaaS can enable organ...
The world's leading Cloud event, Cloud Expo has launched Microservices Journal on the SYS-CON.com portal, featuring over 19,000 original articles, news stories, features, and blog entries. DevOps Journal is focused on this critical enterprise IT topic in the world of cloud computing. Microservices Journal offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. Follow new article posts on T...
When it comes to building applications, one database definitely does not fit all. Traditional SQL databases are great for storing highly structured, normalized data and performing analytics and reporting. NoSQL has attracted developers with its awesome flexibility, and JSON-centric document stores like Cloudant make web developers incredibly productive by offering a JavaScript environment from end-to-end. Recent Big Data challenges have driven the need for a distributed approach to analytics e...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SafeLogic has been named “Bag Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo® New York, which will take place June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. SafeLogic provides security products for applications in mobile and server/appliance environments. SafeLogic’s flagship product CryptoComply is a FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic engine designed to secure data on servers, workstations, appliances, mobile devices, and in the Cloud....