|By Srinivasan Sundara Rajan||
|November 24, 2010 07:00 AM EST||
Security #1 Concern for Cloud Adoption
An analysis of several CIO Surveys about cloud adoption reveals two things:
- There is a growing adoption of cloud computing
- But Security Concerns remains on top of CIO's minds
So either as a SaaS provider or a IT services provider who develops applications on PaaS platform, we should address the security concerns, and this series of article aims at addressing various security concerns.
This concern is aptly shown in the study, Courtesy ‘Microsoft : The Economics Of Cloud'.
SaaS and SQL Injection
Like other web-based systems, cloud applications are prone to most of the common web attacks ranging from:
- Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
- Injection Flaws
- Information Leakage and Improper Error Handling
- Broken Authentication and Session Management
- Failure to Restrict URL Access
- Improper Data Validation
- Insecure Communications
- Malicious File Execution
While most of these are common vulnerabilities found in web applications, a SQL Injection is one of the highest possibilities in a SaaS application.
SQL injection is a method of attack where an attacker can exploit vulnerable code and the type of data an application will accept, and can be exploited in any application parameter that influences a database query.
Examples include parameters within the url itself, post data, or cookie values. If successful, SQL Injection can give an attacker access to backend database contents, the ability to remotely execute system commands, or in some circumstances the means to take control of the server hosting the database.
SQL Injection In Multi Tenant Database Design
We have seen in some of the earlier posts about multi tenant database design, that storing the multi tenant database in the same table segregated by the Tenant ID acting as a primary key is a valid design pattern.
For example if there is a Retail SaaS applications that allows multiple retailers to host their products and sell them through the online SaaS Application, then the possible multi tenant table design for table that hosts all the orders could be.
Unique ID that distinguishes each tenant
Unique Order ID per tenant
Order Total Price
Total Price Of the Order
Currency in which the order is done
.... Other Order related parameters like Customer Information, Shipping Address Etc.
If the SaaS application is prone to SQL Injection, then it is very easy for some one logging on behalf of One Tenant can view the orders belonging to another Client, let us see with an example.
As explained in this simple example.
- Front end application sends the tenant id to the database calls, so that the orders belonging to that tenant can be retrieved
- However the dynamic SQL written simply attaches the ‘tenant Id' Supplied, and returns the results
- This could potentially lead to a situation, where a hacker who could create a dummy ‘tenant id' with the SaaS application can pass on random tenant ID values and could view orders belong to other tenants
Common Steps to Avoid SQL Injection
Below are some generic best practices that could be utilized by any application to avoid SQL Injection.
- Parameterized Queries: SQL Injection arises from an attacker's manipulation of query data to modify query logic. The best method of preventing SQL Injection attacks is thereby to separate the logic of a query from its data. This will prevent commands inserted from user input from being executed.
- Validate input: The vast majority of SQL Injection checks can be prevented by properly validating user input for both type and format.
- Stored Procedures: Consider using stored procedures. They require a very specific parameter format, which makes them less susceptible to SQL Injection attacks.
Additional Steps for SaaS Applications
Below are some additional steps on top of the common steps mentioned above, which could be used to prevent SQL Injection specific to SaaS cloud application.
- Never pass the Tenant ID as a parameter to the back end queries in a open form, which will enable hackers to guess and manipulate the same, keep the Tenant ID as a hidden or internal value from the eyes of the user.
- Do not display the internal values of Tenant ID or the Table names involved when database errors happen, rather mask the errors with generic text
- Validate that the Tenant ID indeed belong to the particular User who has logged on before executing the query. For example if a particular user say John Doe logged on and use the SaaS application for the Tenant A, then any queries by John Doe should only retrieve records from Tenant A and should not include other tenants , this cross reference between the users and tenants are maintained in the system and should be used in all queries.
- Enable additional controls at the database level like Virtual Private Database feature of Oracle 11g or equivalent so that even with the Injection we cannot view the values of other tenants.
Protecting tenant specific data is the ultimate goal of the SaaS application and hackers can use SQL Injection among all techniques to penetrate the same and the above mentioned techniques will prevent the SQL Injection and make the application secure and speed up the Cloud Enablement in the minds of CIOs.
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