Click here to close now.

Welcome!

Cloud Expo Authors: Elizabeth White, Pat Romanski, Carmen Gonzalez, Liz McMillan, John Wetherill

Related Topics: Cloud Expo, Microservices Journal, Virtualization

Cloud Expo: Blog Feed Post

The Evolution of Cloud Computing

Important events in the life of cloud computing

Have you ever wondered where the term “Cloud Computing” originated? When did the hype around cloud start? Who are the people responsible for the idea of utility computing?

The evolution can be split into 3 phases:

  1. The Idea Phase – this started in the 1960s and stretched to the pre internet bubble era. The core idea of computing as a utility computing and grid computing developed.
  2. The Pre Cloud Phase – this started around 1999 and lasted till 2006. In this phase internet as the mechanism to provide Application as Service got developed.
  3. The Cloud Phase – this phase started in 2007 when the term cloud computing term became popular and the sub classification of IaaS, PaaS & SaaS got formalized.

1960s – Evolution of the core concept of Cloud Computing

J.C.R. Licklider

 

He is considered by many to be the person who brought the idea of cloud computing to the forefront.

John McCarthy

 

He opined that “computation may someday be organized as a public utility.”

Douglas F Parkhill

 

He publishes the book “The Challenge of the Computer Utility”. Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision, provided as a utility, online, illusion of infinite supply), the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public, private, government and community forms was thoroughly explored .

1990s – The concept of the Grid

Ian Foster and Carl Kesselman

 

They published the book “The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure”. The analogy used was of the electricity grid where users could plug into the grid and use a metered utility service. The Grid describes how networks of computers can be made to cooperate and be brought to bear on computationally intensive tasks.

1997

Ramnath Chellappa – first known academic use of the term “Cloud Computing”

 

The first scholarly use of the term “cloud computing” was in a 1997 lecture by Ramnath Chellappa where he stated that “…computing paradigm where the boundaries of computing will be determined by economic rationale rather than technical limits alone…”.

 

1998

Data Protection Act of UK – Long term implication for cloud computing

 

The act describes the legal obligations all organizations in the U.K. have in terms of handling data. The act covers such areas as data collection, data storage and data sharing. The act itself is “policed” by the Information Commissioners Office (ICO). The act covers both electronic and paper data storage.

1999

Salesforce.com – pioneer in SaaS CRM

 

On hindsight this proved to be proved to be a turning point in the history of cloud computing.

VMware – virtualization for x86 system

 

They introduced virtualization to x86 systems to address many of these challenges and transform x86 systems into a general purpose, shared hardware infrastructure that offers full isolation, mobility and operating system choice for application environments.

2000

Grid Computing – Takes off in academic circle

 

First IEEE conference held on Grid Computing held in Bangalore, India.

2001

SIIA – the first known use of the term SaaS

 

Software & Information Industry Association in a white paper uses the abbreviation SaaS and equates it to Application Service Provider (ASP).

2002

AWS – Precursor to IaaS

 

Amazon.com launched its Web services initiatives, allowing customers to integrate its vast online content with their own Web site. These web services expanded over time to cover computing facility on demand.

2003

Nicholas Carr – IT Does Not Matter

 

He published an article in Harvard Business Review titled “IT Doesn’t Matter” and followed up with couple of books titled “Does IT Matter” and “The Big Switch”. The basic proposition is that IT is becoming commoditized and becoming utility like electricity and water.

2004

Tim O’Reilly and Dale Dougherty – The concept of “The Web as Platform”

 

The first Web 2.0 conference is organized in San Francisco the theme is “The Web As Platform”.

2005 – The year when nothing much happened around cloud!!

 

2006

Amazon EC2 & S3 – Launch of IaaS

 

Amazon launched its Elastic Compute cloud (EC2) as a commercial web service that allows small companies and individuals to rent computers on which to run their own computer applications. Launch of S3 – What’s interesting about S3 is that they used the pricing model of “pay-per-use”. This has now become the de facto standard for cloud computing pricing.

Google Apps – Office suite as SaaS

 

Google Docs brought cloud computing to the forefront of public consciousness.

2007

Force.com – PaaS

 

Salesforce launches Force.com, their Platform as a Service offering.

Google Trend – Interest in Cloud Computing picks up

 

Interest in Cloud Computing picks up. Google Trends show a steady increase in interest starting third quarter of 2007.

This may be triggered by the white paper on cloud computing released IBM which talks about efficiency and innovation that can be achieved through cloud computing.

2008

Google App Engine – PaaS Offering

 

The pricing was aggressive with a free entry level plan and low cost computing and storage services.

Eucalyptus – Open Source platform for Private Cloud

 

They become the first open source AWS API compatible platform for deploying private clouds.

Gartner Hype Cycle – Cloud Computing finds a place

 

Cloud Computing is mentioned first time in Gartner’s Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies. It is cited as a technology of transformational importance expected to mature in 2-5 years. By the year 2009 it has reached the “Peak of Inflated Expectation”. In 2010, it has started descending towards the “Trough of Disillusionment”. Also, it is shown as two different technologies:

  • Cloud Computing
  • Cloud and Web Platform

2009

Windows Azure – Beta

 

The launch of Azure is a key event in the history of cloud computing with the largest software company making a small but significant shift to the web.

Amazon AWS – Becomes auto scalable

 

Amazon adds manageability, auto scalability and load balancing feature.

2010 – The Year of No Major Breakthrough!!!

Amazon AWS

 

Several improvements were announced which included EC2 Spot Instance, EC2 Cluster Compute Instance and PCI compliance and ISO 27001 certification.

Google App Engine

 

Many improvements – no major feature addition

Microsoft Azure

 

Commercial version was released.

Salesforce.com

 

Acquired Heraku to add Ruby – Platform as a Service to its list of offering.

Cloud Computing Trend – Minus the Hype

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Udayan Banerjee

Udayan Banerjee is CTO at NIIT Technologies Ltd, an IT industry veteran with more than 30 years' experience. He blogs at http://setandbma.wordpress.com.
The blog focuses on emerging technologies like cloud computing, mobile computing, social media aka web 2.0 etc. It also contains stuff about agile methodology and trends in architecture. It is a world view seen through the lens of a software service provider based out of Bangalore and serving clients across the world. The focus is mostly on...

  • Keep the hype out and project a realistic picture
  • Uncover trends not very apparent
  • Draw conclusion from real life experience
  • Point out fallacy & discrepancy when I see them
  • Talk about trends which I find interesting
Google

@CloudExpo Stories
More organizations are embracing DevOps to realize compelling business benefits such as more frequent feature releases, increased application stability, and more productive resource utilization. However, security and compliance monitoring tools have not kept up and often represent the single largest remaining hurdle to continuous delivery. In their session at DevOps Summit, Justin Criswell, Senior Sales Engineer at Alert Logic, Ricardo Lupo, a Solution Architect with Chef, will discuss how to ...
17th Cloud Expo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterprises a...
Thanks to Docker, it becomes very easy to leverage containers to build, ship, and run any Linux application on any kind of infrastructure. Docker is particularly helpful for microservice architectures because their successful implementation relies on a fast, efficient deployment mechanism – which is precisely one of the features of Docker. Microservice architectures are therefore becoming more popular, and are increasingly seen as an interesting option even for smaller projects, instead of bein...
Move from reactive to proactive cloud management in a heterogeneous cloud infrastructure. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Manoj Khabe, Innovative Solution-Focused Transformation Leader at Vicom Computer Services, Inc., will show how to replace a help desk-centric approach with an ITIL-based service model and service-centric CMDB that’s tightly integrated with an event and incident management platform. Learn how to expand the scope of operations management to service management. He will al...
In this scenarios approach Joe Thykattil, Technology Architect & Sales at TimeWarner / Navisite, presented examples that will allow business-savvy professionals to make informed decisions based on a sound business model. This model covered the technology options in detail as well as a financial analysis. The TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) and ROI (Return on Investment) demonstrated how to start, develop and formulate a business case that will allow both small and large scale projects to achieve...
The truth is, today’s databases are anything but agile – they are effectively static repositories that are cumbersome to work with, difficult to change, and cannot keep pace with application demands. Performance suffers as a result, and it takes far longer than it should to deliver new features and capabilities needed to make your organization competitive. As your application and business needs change, data repositories and structures get outmoded rapidly, resulting in increased work for applica...
The Workspace-as-a-Service (WaaS) market will grow to $6.4B by 2018. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Seth Bostock, CEO of IndependenceIT, will begin by walking the audience through the evolution of Workspace as-a-Service, where it is now vs. where it going. To look beyond the desktop we must understand exactly what WaaS is, who the users are, and where it is going in the future. IT departments, ISVs and service providers must look to workflow and automation capabilities to adapt to growing ...
The speed of product development has increased massively in the past 10 years. At the same time our formal secure development and SDL methodologies have fallen behind. This forces product developers to choose between rapid release times and security. In his session at DevOps Summit, Michael Murray, Director of Cyber Security Consulting and Assessment at GE Healthcare, examined the problems and presented some solutions for moving security into the DevOps lifecycle to ensure that we get fast AND ...
After a couple of false starts, cloud-based desktop solutions are picking up steam, driven by trends such as BYOD and pervasive high-speed connectivity. In his session at 15th Cloud Expo, Seth Bostock, CEO of IndependenceIT, cut through the hype and the acronyms, and discussed the emergence of full-featured cloud workspaces that do for the desktop what cloud infrastructure did for the server. He also discussed VDI vs DaaS, implementation strategies and evaluation criteria.
Since 2008 and for the first time in history, more than half of humans live in urban areas, urging cities to become “smart.” Today, cities can leverage the wide availability of smartphones combined with new technologies such as Beacons or NFC to connect their urban furniture and environment to create citizen-first services that improve transportation, way-finding and information delivery. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Laetitia Gazel-Anthoine, CEO of Connecthings, will focus on successful use c...
In his session at DevOps Summit, Tapabrata Pal, Director of Enterprise Architecture at Capital One, will tell a story about how Capital One has embraced Agile and DevOps Security practices across the Enterprise – driven by Enterprise Architecture; bringing in Development, Operations and Information Security organizations together. Capital Ones DevOpsSec practice is based upon three "pillars" – Shift-Left, Automate Everything, Dashboard Everything. Within about three years, from 100% waterfall, C...
Skeuomorphism usually means retaining existing design cues in something new that doesn’t actually need them. However, the concept of skeuomorphism can be thought of as relating more broadly to applying existing patterns to new technologies that, in fact, cry out for new approaches. In his session at DevOps Summit, Gordon Haff, Senior Cloud Strategy Marketing and Evangelism Manager at Red Hat, will discuss why containers should be paired with new architectural practices such as microservices ra...
With the arrival of the Big Data revolution, a data professional is expected to master a broad spectrum of complex domains including data processing, mathematics, programming languages, machine learning techniques, and business knowledge. While this mastery is undoubtedly important, this narrow focus on tool usage has divorced many from the imagination required to solve real-world problems. As the demand for analysis increases, the data science community must transform from tool experts to "data...
Building low-cost wearable devices can enhance the quality of our lives. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Sai Yamanoor, Embedded Software Engineer at Altschool, provided an example of putting together a small keychain within a $50 budget that educates the user about the air quality in their surroundings. He also provided examples such as building a wearable device that provides transit or recreational information. He then reviewed the resources available to build wearable devices at ...
Thanks to Docker, it becomes very easy to leverage containers to build, ship, and run any Linux application on any kind of infrastructure. Docker is particularly helpful for microservice architectures because their successful implementation relies on a fast, efficient deployment mechanism – which is precisely one of the features of Docker. Microservice architectures are therefore becoming more popular, and are increasingly seen as an interesting option even for smaller projects, instead of bein...
DevOps tends to focus on the relationship between Dev and Ops, putting an emphasis on the ops and application infrastructure. But that’s changing with microservices architectures. In her session at DevOps Summit, Lori MacVittie, Evangelist for F5 Networks, will focus on how microservices are changing the underlying architectures needed to scale, secure and deliver applications based on highly distributed (micro) services and why that means an expansion into “the network” for DevOps.
How do APIs and IoT relate? The answer is not as simple as merely adding an API on top of a dumb device, but rather about understanding the architectural patterns for implementing an IoT fabric. There are typically two or three trends: Exposing the device to a management framework Exposing that management framework to a business centric logic Exposing that business layer and data to end users. This last trend is the IoT stack, which involves a new shift in the separation of what stuff happe...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo in Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading in...
The 3rd International @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 16th International Cloud Expo – to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY – is now accepting Hackathon proposals. Hackathon sponsorship benefits include general brand exposure and increasing engagement with the developer ecosystem. At Cloud Expo 2014 Silicon Valley, IBM held the Bluemix Developer Playground on November 5 and ElasticBox held the DevOps Hackathon on November 6. Both events took place on the expo fl...
The emergence of cloud computing and Big Data warrants a greater role for the PMO to successfully manage enterprise transformation driven by these powerful trends. As the adoption of cloud-based services continues to grow, a governance model is needed to orchestrate enterprise cloud implementations and harness the power of Big Data analytics. In his session at Cloud Expo, Mahesh Singh, President of BigData, Inc., discussed how the Enterprise PMO takes center stage not only in developing the app...