Welcome!

Cloud Expo Authors: Roger Strukhoff, Bernard Golden, Greg Ness, Elizabeth White, Carmen Gonzalez

Related Topics: Cloud Expo, Java, SOA & WOA, Open Source, Virtualization, Web 2.0

Cloud Expo: Article

Examining Excellent Eucalyptus

A high-level cloud - overview of Eucalyptus IaaS

Eucalyptus is an open source Infrastructure as a Service cloud offering. What is unique about Eucalyptus is that it is compatible with Amazon AWS APIs. This means that you can:

  • Use Eucalyptus commands to manage Amazon or Eucalyptus instances.
  • Freely move instances between a Eucalyptus private cloud and the Amazon Public cloud to create a hybrid cloud.

Eucalyptus leverages operating system virtualization, such as KVM or XEN, to achieve isolation between applications and stacks. Operating system virtualization dedicates CPU and RAM to systems and applications such that they don't interfere with each other. In cloud parlance, this is called isolation and is essential to achieve multi-tenancy. (For a refresher on basic cloud terminology, see here; for a refresher on Infrastructure as a Service, see here).

Cloud computing layers on top of operating system virtualization and when combined with dynamic  allocation of IP addresses, storage  and firewall rules creates a service that end users interact with to run instances of images.

Eucalyptus concepts
The following is an explanation of terminology and concepts used by Eucalyptus.

Images
An image is a fixed collection of software modules, system software, application software and configuration information that is started from a known baseline (immutable/fixed). An example of an image is a Linux virtual machine configured with Apache, MySQL, Perl and PHP.  When bundled and uploaded to the Eucalyptus cloud, this will become known as an "EMI" Eucalyptus Machine Image.  An EKI is an Eucalyptus Kernel Image which contains kernel modules necessary for functioning of the image. An ERI is a Eucalyptus RAM Image.

Instances
When an image is put to use it is called an instance. The configuration is dynamically executed at runtime and the cloud controller decides where the image will run, storage and networking is attached to meet resource needs. This is executed under the control of the credentials (digital certificates) of the user who is requesting an instance of the image.

IP addressing
Eucalyptus instances can have public and private IPs. An IP address is assigned to an instance when the instance is created from an image. For instances that require a persistent IP address, such as  web-server, Eucalyptus supplies Elastic IP addresses. These are pre-allocated by the Eucalyptus cloud to an instance. An Elastic IP persists whether the instance is running or not. In other words if you stop an instance and restart it hours, days or even weeks later, the instance will bind to the same Elastic IP address that was assigned to it. This is essential for consistent DNS resolution.

Security
TCP/IP stack layer 3 security is achieved using security groups, which share a common set of firewall rules. This is a mechanism to firewall off an instance using IP address and port block/allow functionality.

At TCP/IP layer 2 instances are isolated. If this were not present, a root user could manipulate the networking of instances and gain access to neighboring instances violating the basic cloud tenet of instance isolation and separation.

Networking
There are three networking modes:

  1. Managed mode - Eucalyptus manages a local network of instances, including security groups and elastic IPs. Eucalyptus maintains a DHCP server and provides private non-routable IPs to instances. An instance is created in a security group and gets an IP from the range in that group.  There is also a pool of public (elastic) IPs that users can bind to an instance at boot-time or dynamically at runtime. VLANs are used to network instances in different security groups. If there is no VLAN present, isolation can be achieved using security groups in different subnets.
  2. System mode - Essentially the physical LAN that is attached to Eucalyptus manages the network of the Eucalyptus cloud. Eucalyptus assigns a MAC address and attaches the instance's network interface to the physical Ethernet LAN through the NodeController's bridge. System mode requires a DHCP server on the physical LAN that is reachable by instances. System mode does not offer elastic IPs, security groups or VM isolation.
  3. Static mode - In static mode Eucalyptus maintains a DHCP server and assigns IP addresses to instances. Static mode does not offer elastic IPs, security groups or VM isolation.

Access control
A user of Eucalyptus is called an identity. Identities can be grouped together for access control purposes. Users exist within accounts. An account is a namespace that contains users/identities, key pairs and security groups. An account is used to account for resource usage.

Eucalyptus abbreviations
CLC

The CLC is a Cloud controller similar to Amazon EC2, It is the entry point into cloud for all users: administrators, developers, project managers and  end users. The CLC queries other components for resources and makes scheduling decisions and requests to Cluster Controllers. The CLC exposing and manages underlying resources (servers, networks, storage).  Users access the CLC using AWS compatible command line tools and a web-based dashboard.

Walrus
Walrus, similar to Amazon's S3,  is a bucket based persistent data storage.  Users create, delete and list buckets; put and remove objects from buckets; get and set access control policies. Walrus is accessible from the administrative interface or from an instance inside cloud.

CC
The CC is the Cluster Controller. The CC gathers information about node controllers and schedules an instance to execute on a specific NodeController.

NC
The NC is the the Node Controller. The Node Controller manages instances. The NC controls instance activities such as execution, inspection and termination.  The NC fetches and maintains a cache of instance images.  The NC also manages virtual network endpoints.

SC
The SC is the storage controller and is similar to Amazon's EBS (Elastic Block Store). The storage controller manages block accessed network storage.  The SC interfaces with SCSI, SAN, NFS.  The SC exports storage volumes that can be attached to an instance or mounted as a raw-block device. SC storage volumes persist even when an instance stops running and thus stores persistent data. SC storage cannot be shared between instances and only exists in the same Availability Zone in which the instance is running. Users can create snapshots from SC volumes which can stored in Walrus and thus be made available across Availability Zones.

More Stories By Jonathan Gershater

Jonathan Gershater has lived and worked in Silicon Valley since 1996, primarily doing system and sales engineering specializing in: Web Applications, Identity and Security. At Red Hat, he provides Technical Marketing for Virtualization and Cloud. Prior to joining Red Hat, Jonathan worked at 3Com, Entrust (by acquisition) two startups, Sun Microsystems and Trend Micro.

(The views expressed in this blog are entirely mine and do not represent my employer - Jonathan).

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@CloudExpo Stories
Samsung VP Jacopo Lenzi, who headed the company's recent SmartThings acquisition under the auspices of Samsung's Open Innovaction Center (OIC), answered a few questions we had about the deal. This interview was in conjunction with our interview with SmartThings CEO Alex Hawkinson. IoT Journal: SmartThings was developed in an open, standards-agnostic platform, and will now be part of Samsung's Open Innovation Center. Can you elaborate on your commitment to keep the platform open? Jacopo Lenzi: S...
The major cloud platforms defy a simple, side-by-side analysis. Each of the major IaaS public-cloud platforms offers their own unique strengths and functionality. Options for on-site private cloud are diverse as well, and must be designed and deployed while taking existing legacy architecture and infrastructure into account. Then the reality is that most enterprises are embarking on a hybrid cloud strategy and programs. In this Power Panel at 15th Cloud Expo, moderated by Ashar Baig, Research ...
In her General Session at 15th Cloud Expo, Anne Plese, Senior Consultant, Cloud Product Marketing, at Verizon Enterprise, will focus on finding the right mix of renting vs. buying Oracle capacity to scale to meet business demands, and offer validated Oracle database TCO models for Oracle development and testing environments. Anne Plese is a marketing and technology enthusiast/realist with over 19+ years in high tech. At Verizon Enterprise, she focuses on driving growth for the Verizon Cloud pla...
StackIQ offers a comprehensive software suite that automates the deployment, provisioning, and management of Big Infrastructure. With StackIQ’s software, you can spin up fully configured big data clusters, quickly and consistently — from bare-metal up to the applications layer — and manage them efficiently. Our software’s modular architecture allows customers to integrate nearly any application with the StackIQ software stack.
As Platform as a Service (PaaS) matures as a category, developers should have the ability to use the programming language of their choice to build applications and have access to a wide array of services. Bluemix is IBM's open cloud development platform that enables users to easily build cloud-based, creative mobile and web applications without having to spend large amounts of time and resources on configuring infrastructure and multiple software licenses. In this track, you will learn about the...
The Internet of Things will greatly expand the opportunities for data collection and new business models driven off of that data. In her session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Esmeralda Swartz, CMO of MetraTech, will discuss how for this to be effective you not only need to have infrastructure and operational models capable of utilizing this new phenomenon, but increasingly service providers will need to convince a skeptical public to participate. Get ready to show them the money! Speaker Bio: ...
Compute virtualization has been transformational, yet security policy implementation and enforcement has lagged behind in agility and automation. There are a number of key considerations when implementing policy in private and hybrid clouds. In his session at 15th Cloud Expo, Holland Barry, VP of Technology at Catbird, will discuss the impact of this new paradigm and what organizations can do today to safely move to software-defined network and compute architectures, including: How normal ope...
How do APIs and IoT relate? The answer is not as simple as merely adding an API on top of a dumb device, but rather about understanding the architectural patterns for implementing an IoT fabric. There are typically two or three trends: Exposing the device to a management framework Exposing that management framework to a business centric logic • Exposing that business layer and data to end users. This last trend is the IoT stack, which involves a new shift in the separation of what stuff hap...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SOA Software, an API management leader, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. SOA Software is a leading provider of API Management and SOA Governance products that equip business to deliver APIs and SOA together to drive their company to meet its business strategy quickly and effectively. SOA Software’s technology helps businesses to accel...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Utimaco will exhibit at SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Utimaco is a leading manufacturer of hardware based security solutions that provide the root of trust to keep cryptographic keys safe, secure critical digital infrastructures and protect high value data assets. Only Utimaco delivers a general-purpose hardware security module (HSM) as a customiz...
Almost everyone sees the potential of Internet of Things but how can businesses truly unlock that potential. The key will be in the ability to discover business insight in the midst of an ocean of Big Data generated from billions of embedded devices via Systems of Discover. Businesses will also need to ensure that they can sustain that insight by leveraging the cloud for global reach, scale and elasticity.
SYS-CON Events announced today that ElasticBox is holding a Hackathon at DevOps Summit, November 6 from 12 pm -4 pm at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. You can enter as an individual or team of up to 10 developers. A New Star Is Born Every Month! All completed ElasticBoxes will then be sent to a judging panel - 12 winners will be featured on the ElasticBox website in 2015. All entrants will receive five full enterprise licenses for one year + ElasticBox headphones + Elasti...
Once the decision has been made to move part or all of a workload to the cloud, a methodology for selecting that workload needs to be established. How do you move to the cloud? What does the discovery, assessment and planning look like? What workloads make sense? Which cloud model makes sense for each workload? What are the considerations for how to select the right cloud model? And how does that fit in with the overall IT tranformation? In his session at 15th Cloud Expo, John Hatem, head of V...
Cloud services are the newest tool in the arsenal of IT products in the market today. These cloud services integrate process and tools. In order to use these products effectively, organizations must have a good understanding of themselves and their business requirements. In his session at 15th Cloud Expo, Brian Lewis, Principal Architect at Verizon Cloud, will outline key areas of organizational focus, and how to formalize an actionable plan when migrating applications and internal services to...
SAP is delivering break-through innovation combined with fantastic user experience powered by the market-leading in-memory technology, SAP HANA. In his General Session at 15th Cloud Expo, Thorsten Leiduck, VP ISVs & Digital Commerce, SAP, will discuss how SAP and partners provide cloud and hybrid cloud solutions as well as real-time Big Data offerings that help companies of all sizes and industries run better. SAP launched an application challenge to award the most innovative SAP HANA and SAP ...
Ixia develops amazing products so its customers can connect the world. Ixia helps its customers provide an always-on user experience through fast, secure delivery of dynamic connected technologies and services. Through actionable insights that accelerate and secure application and service delivery, Ixia's customers benefit from faster time to market, optimized application performance and higher-quality deployments.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Calm.io has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of DevOps Summit Silicon Valley, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Calm.io is a cloud orchestration platform for AWS, vCenter, OpenStack, or bare metal, that runs your CL tools puppet, Chef, shell, git, Jenkins, nagios, and will soon support New Relic and Docker. It can run hosted, or on premise and provides VM automation / expiry, self-service portals,...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Aria Systems, the recurring revenue expert, has been named "Bronze Sponsor" of SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4-6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Aria Systems helps leading businesses connect their customers with the products and services they love. Industry leaders like Pitney Bowes, Experian, AAA NCNU, VMware, HootSuite and many others choose Aria to power their recurring revenue bu...
The Internet of Things (IoT) is going to require a new way of thinking and of developing software for speed, security and innovation. This requires IT leaders to balance business as usual while anticipating for the next market and technology trends. Cloud provides the right IT asset portfolio to help today’s IT leaders manage the old and prepare for the new. Today the cloud conversation is evolving from private and public to hybrid. This session will provide use cases and insights to reinforce t...
Blue Box has closed a $10 million Series B financing. The round was led by a strategic investor and included participation from prior investors including Voyager Capital and Founders Collective, as well as the Blue Box executive team. This round follows a $4.3 million Series A closed in December of 2012 and led by Voyager Capital. In May of this year, the company announced general availability of its private cloud as a service offering, Blue Box Cloud. Since that release, the company has dem...