|By Jonathan Gershater||
|August 24, 2012 11:00 AM EDT||
Eucalyptus is an open source Infrastructure as a Service cloud offering. What is unique about Eucalyptus is that it is compatible with Amazon AWS APIs. This means that you can:
- Use Eucalyptus commands to manage Amazon or Eucalyptus instances.
- Freely move instances between a Eucalyptus private cloud and the Amazon Public cloud to create a hybrid cloud.
Eucalyptus leverages operating system virtualization, such as KVM or XEN, to achieve isolation between applications and stacks. Operating system virtualization dedicates CPU and RAM to systems and applications such that they don't interfere with each other. In cloud parlance, this is called isolation and is essential to achieve multi-tenancy. (For a refresher on basic cloud terminology, see here; for a refresher on Infrastructure as a Service, see here).
Cloud computing layers on top of operating system virtualization and when combined with dynamic allocation of IP addresses, storage and firewall rules creates a service that end users interact with to run instances of images.
The following is an explanation of terminology and concepts used by Eucalyptus.
An image is a fixed collection of software modules, system software, application software and configuration information that is started from a known baseline (immutable/fixed). An example of an image is a Linux virtual machine configured with Apache, MySQL, Perl and PHP. When bundled and uploaded to the Eucalyptus cloud, this will become known as an "EMI" Eucalyptus Machine Image. An EKI is an Eucalyptus Kernel Image which contains kernel modules necessary for functioning of the image. An ERI is a Eucalyptus RAM Image.
When an image is put to use it is called an instance. The configuration is dynamically executed at runtime and the cloud controller decides where the image will run, storage and networking is attached to meet resource needs. This is executed under the control of the credentials (digital certificates) of the user who is requesting an instance of the image.
Eucalyptus instances can have public and private IPs. An IP address is assigned to an instance when the instance is created from an image. For instances that require a persistent IP address, such as web-server, Eucalyptus supplies Elastic IP addresses. These are pre-allocated by the Eucalyptus cloud to an instance. An Elastic IP persists whether the instance is running or not. In other words if you stop an instance and restart it hours, days or even weeks later, the instance will bind to the same Elastic IP address that was assigned to it. This is essential for consistent DNS resolution.
TCP/IP stack layer 3 security is achieved using security groups, which share a common set of firewall rules. This is a mechanism to firewall off an instance using IP address and port block/allow functionality.
At TCP/IP layer 2 instances are isolated. If this were not present, a root user could manipulate the networking of instances and gain access to neighboring instances violating the basic cloud tenet of instance isolation and separation.
There are three networking modes:
- Managed mode - Eucalyptus manages a local network of instances, including security groups and elastic IPs. Eucalyptus maintains a DHCP server and provides private non-routable IPs to instances. An instance is created in a security group and gets an IP from the range in that group. There is also a pool of public (elastic) IPs that users can bind to an instance at boot-time or dynamically at runtime. VLANs are used to network instances in different security groups. If there is no VLAN present, isolation can be achieved using security groups in different subnets.
- System mode - Essentially the physical LAN that is attached to Eucalyptus manages the network of the Eucalyptus cloud. Eucalyptus assigns a MAC address and attaches the instance's network interface to the physical Ethernet LAN through the NodeController's bridge. System mode requires a DHCP server on the physical LAN that is reachable by instances. System mode does not offer elastic IPs, security groups or VM isolation.
- Static mode - In static mode Eucalyptus maintains a DHCP server and assigns IP addresses to instances. Static mode does not offer elastic IPs, security groups or VM isolation.
A user of Eucalyptus is called an identity. Identities can be grouped together for access control purposes. Users exist within accounts. An account is a namespace that contains users/identities, key pairs and security groups. An account is used to account for resource usage.
The CLC is a Cloud controller similar to Amazon EC2, It is the entry point into cloud for all users: administrators, developers, project managers and end users. The CLC queries other components for resources and makes scheduling decisions and requests to Cluster Controllers. The CLC exposing and manages underlying resources (servers, networks, storage). Users access the CLC using AWS compatible command line tools and a web-based dashboard.
Walrus, similar to Amazon's S3, is a bucket based persistent data storage. Users create, delete and list buckets; put and remove objects from buckets; get and set access control policies. Walrus is accessible from the administrative interface or from an instance inside cloud.
The CC is the Cluster Controller. The CC gathers information about node controllers and schedules an instance to execute on a specific NodeController.
The NC is the the Node Controller. The Node Controller manages instances. The NC controls instance activities such as execution, inspection and termination. The NC fetches and maintains a cache of instance images. The NC also manages virtual network endpoints.
The SC is the storage controller and is similar to Amazon's EBS (Elastic Block Store). The storage controller manages block accessed network storage. The SC interfaces with SCSI, SAN, NFS. The SC exports storage volumes that can be attached to an instance or mounted as a raw-block device. SC storage volumes persist even when an instance stops running and thus stores persistent data. SC storage cannot be shared between instances and only exists in the same Availability Zone in which the instance is running. Users can create snapshots from SC volumes which can stored in Walrus and thus be made available across Availability Zones.
So you think you are a DevOps warrior, huh? Put your money (not really, it’s free) where your metrics are and prove it by taking The Ultimate DevOps Geek Quiz Challenge, sponsored by DevOps Summit. Battle through the set of tough questions created by industry thought leaders to earn your bragging rights and win some cool prizes.
Oct. 24, 2016 02:15 PM EDT Reads: 3,975
We're entering the post-smartphone era, where wearable gadgets from watches and fitness bands to glasses and health aids will power the next technological revolution. With mass adoption of wearable devices comes a new data ecosystem that must be protected. Wearables open new pathways that facilitate the tracking, sharing and storing of consumers’ personal health, location and daily activity data. Consumers have some idea of the data these devices capture, but most don’t realize how revealing and...
Oct. 24, 2016 02:15 PM EDT Reads: 3,900
A completely new computing platform is on the horizon. They’re called Microservers by some, ARM Servers by others, and sometimes even ARM-based Servers. No matter what you call them, Microservers will have a huge impact on the data center and on server computing in general. Although few people are familiar with Microservers today, their impact will be felt very soon. This is a new category of computing platform that is available today and is predicted to have triple-digit growth rates for some ...
Oct. 24, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 34,141
Governments around the world are adopting Safe Harbor privacy provisions to protect customer data from leaving sovereign territories. Increasingly, global companies are required to create new instances of their server clusters in multiple countries to keep abreast of these new Safe Harbor laws. Is it worth it? In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Adam Rogers, Managing Director of Anexia, Inc., will discuss how to keep your data legal and still stay in business.
Oct. 24, 2016 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,447
SYS-CON Events announced today that MathFreeOn will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MathFreeOn is Software as a Service (SaaS) used in Engineering and Math education. Write scripts and solve math problems online. MathFreeOn provides online courses for beginners or amateurs who have difficulties in writing scripts. In accordance with various mathematical topics, there are more tha...
Oct. 24, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,002
In past @ThingsExpo presentations, Joseph di Paolantonio has explored how various Internet of Things (IoT) and data management and analytics (DMA) solution spaces will come together as sensor analytics ecosystems. This year, in his session at @ThingsExpo, Joseph di Paolantonio from DataArchon, will be adding the numerous Transportation areas, from autonomous vehicles to “Uber for containers.” While IoT data in any one area of Transportation will have a huge impact in that area, combining sensor...
Oct. 24, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 825
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftNet Solutions will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. SoftNet Solutions specializes in Enterprise Solutions for Hadoop and Big Data. It offers customers the most open, robust, and value-conscious portfolio of solutions, services, and tools for the shortest route to success with Big Data. The unique differentiator is the ability to architect and ...
Oct. 24, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 856
The best way to leverage your Cloud Expo presence as a sponsor and exhibitor is to plan your news announcements around our events. The press covering Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo will have access to these releases and will amplify your news announcements. More than two dozen Cloud companies either set deals at our shows or have announced their mergers and acquisitions at Cloud Expo. Product announcements during our show provide your company with the most reach through our targeted audiences.
Oct. 24, 2016 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 4,701
Successful transition from traditional IT to cloud computing requires three key ingredients: an IT architecture that allows companies to extend their internal best practices to the cloud, a cost point that allows economies of scale, and automated processes that manage risk exposure and maintain regulatory compliance with industry regulations (FFIEC, PCI-DSS, HIPAA, FISMA). The unique combination of VMware, the IBM Cloud, and Cloud Raxak, a 2016 Gartner Cool Vendor in IT Automation, provides a co...
Oct. 24, 2016 12:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,205
More and more brands have jumped on the IoT bandwagon. We have an excess of wearables – activity trackers, smartwatches, smart glasses and sneakers, and more that track seemingly endless datapoints. However, most consumers have no idea what “IoT” means. Creating more wearables that track data shouldn't be the aim of brands; delivering meaningful, tangible relevance to their users should be. We're in a period in which the IoT pendulum is still swinging. Initially, it swung toward "smart for smar...
Oct. 24, 2016 12:30 PM EDT Reads: 977
@ThingsExpo has been named the Top 5 Most Influential Internet of Things Brand by Onalytica in the ‘The Internet of Things Landscape 2015: Top 100 Individuals and Brands.' Onalytica analyzed Twitter conversations around the #IoT debate to uncover the most influential brands and individuals driving the conversation. Onalytica captured data from 56,224 users. The PageRank based methodology they use to extract influencers on a particular topic (tweets mentioning #InternetofThings or #IoT in this ...
Oct. 24, 2016 12:15 PM EDT Reads: 8,412
SYS-CON Events announced today that Niagara Networks will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Niagara Networks offers the highest port-density systems, and the most complete Next-Generation Network Visibility systems including Network Packet Brokers, Bypass Switches, and Network TAPs.
Oct. 24, 2016 11:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,310
In an era of historic innovation fueled by unprecedented access to data and technology, the low cost and risk of entering new markets has leveled the playing field for business. Today, any ambitious innovator can easily introduce a new application or product that can reinvent business models and transform the client experience. In their Day 2 Keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Mercer Rowe, IBM Vice President of Strategic Alliances, and Raejeanne Skillern, Intel Vice President of Data Center Group and ...
Oct. 24, 2016 11:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,516
Data is the fuel that drives the machine learning algorithmic engines and ultimately provides the business value. In his session at Cloud Expo, Ed Featherston, a director and senior enterprise architect at Collaborative Consulting, will discuss the key considerations around quality, volume, timeliness, and pedigree that must be dealt with in order to properly fuel that engine.
Oct. 24, 2016 10:45 AM EDT Reads: 3,865
SYS-CON Events announced today that StarNet Communications will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. StarNet Communications’ FastX is the industry first cloud-based remote X Windows emulator. Using standard Web browsers (FireFox, Chrome, Safari, etc.) users from around the world gain highly secure access to applications and data hosted on Linux-based servers in a central data center. ...
Oct. 24, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,101
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cemware will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Use MATLAB functions by just visiting website mathfreeon.com. MATLAB compatible, freely usable, online platform services. As of October 2016, 80,000 users from 180 countries are enjoying our platform service.
Oct. 24, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 831
Traditional on-premises data centers have long been the domain of modern data platforms like Apache Hadoop, meaning companies who build their business on public cloud were challenged to run Big Data processing and analytics at scale. But recent advancements in Hadoop performance, security, and most importantly cloud-native integrations, are giving organizations the ability to truly gain value from all their data. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, David Tishgart, Director of Product Marketing ...
Oct. 24, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,539
Virgil consists of an open-source encryption library, which implements Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) and Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES) (including RSA schema), a Key Management API, and a cloud-based Key Management Service (Virgil Keys). The Virgil Keys Service consists of a public key service and a private key escrow service.
Oct. 24, 2016 10:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,072
SYS-CON Events announced today that eCube Systems, the leading provider of modern development tools and best practices for Continuous Integration on OpenVMS, will exhibit at SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo New York, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. eCube Systems offers a family of middleware products and development tools that maximize return on technology investment by leveraging existing technical equity to meet evolving business needs. ...
Oct. 24, 2016 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,505
Effectively SMBs and government programs must address compounded regulatory compliance requirements. The most recent are Controlled Unclassified Information and the EU’s GDPR have Board Level implications. Managing sensitive data protection will likely result in acquisition criteria, demonstration requests and new requirements. Developers, as part of the pre-planning process and the associated supply chain, could benefit from updating their code libraries and design by incorporating changes.
Oct. 24, 2016 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,687