Welcome!

Cloud Expo Authors: Pat Romanski, Liz McMillan, Roger Strukhoff, Elizabeth White, Jason Bloomberg

Related Topics: Cloud Expo, SOA & WOA, Linux, Open Source, Web 2.0, Security

Cloud Expo: Article

Open Source PaaS for Parallel Cloud Application Development

Architectural advantages of cross-layer optimized parallel computing PaaS

Improving application program performance will require parallelizing the program execution at ever finer granularity now that the processor clock rates are no longer increasing. However, even in a per-application dedicated computing environment, the parallelization overhead is known to place a limit on how much application on-time throughput performance increase can be achieved via higher levels of parallel processing. The throughput-limiting impact of parallelization overhead will be significantly amplified when executing multiple internally parallelized applications on dynamically shared cloud computing environment, since the allocation of processing resources to instances and tasks of any given application cannot be done in isolation, but instead it needs to be done collectively across all the applications dynamically sharing the given pool of computing resources. There thus is an urgent need to solve this complex challenge of developing internally parallelized programs for dynamic execution on shared cloud computing infrastructure, if we expect to be able scale the performance and capacity of cloud hosted applications going forward.

PaaS Approach for Parallel Cloud Computing Challenges
The Need for Cross-layer Optimized Platform

For effectiveness of a parallel cloud computing platform, what is essential is how well the platform elements perform together, rather than individually. Consequently, the complex, interleaved challenges of parallel cloud application development and execution cannot be solved by any single layer or element of traditional computing architectures alone. Instead, a comprehensive, cross-layer optimized platform architecture is needed.

This new platform architecture will involve a parallel program development environment for producing application executables based on actors that can be efficiently mapped for concurrent execution on processing cores of dynamically shared manycore arrays. In addition, the parallel cloud computing platform will need an execution environment that, besides executing the program instructions on processing cores, takes care of the dynamic parallel execution routines on behalf of the applications, so that the processing cores are used for executing the actual client programs instead of system functions. If the hardware of the manycore processor fabric did not handle the parallel execution routines[1], eventually the system would be just managing itself rather than providing increased user application throughput as the numbers of processing cores and applications and tasks sharing them are scaled up. This difference in enabling application on-time throughput scalability is illustrated at Figures 4 and 5 (in Ch. 3 Architectural Advantages of Cross-layer Optimized Parallel Computing PaaS).

The Platform Architecture
Vision

Figure 1 below illustrates the overall architecture of the envisioned open parallel program development and execution platform as a service (PaaS).

Figure 1: Overview of the parallel cloud computing PaaS

As illustrated in Figure 1, the open parallel computing PaaS has an open-sourced parallel program development environment and a dynamic parallel execution environment. The development environment allows the platform users to produce executables of their application programs that are made of segments (tasks/actors/threads) that can execute concurrently on parallel (incl. pipelined) processing cores. The execution environment provides, besides an array of processing cores for parallel execution of the user program tasks, the capabilities to dynamically map the highest-priority ready application task instances for execution on their assigned cores. While the state (e.g. which application task instance is mapped to any given core of the shared resource pool at any given time) of the execution environment is highly dynamic during the application runtime, in the platform architecture per Figure 1, the execution environment provides for the application programs (and their developers) a virtual static view of it; any given application can assume that each of its task instances is always active and mapped to a virtual static core in an array that is virtually dedicated to that single application. The hardware automated parallel processing runtime routines of the execution environment per Figure 1 hide (to the desired level) the dynamic details of the processing hardware from the applications as well as the development environment software, thereby providing a higher level, simplified abstraction of the execution environment for the software. The raised level of the software-hardware interface per Figure 1 enables greater productivity for both realizing the much needed open, comprehensive parallel programming environment as well as for developing parallelized applications for cloud deployment, as software does not need to be concerned of the dynamic parallel execution details.

Motivation
Importantly, there is the need to coordinate the various development activities concerning parallel programming and cloud computing tools etc. base technologies (e.g. languages, compilers, parallel file systems, data bases, etc.) around a common overall framework so that the individual technology elements work efficiently together, to enable high productivity development of parallelized applications for cloud deployment. ThroughPuter proposes that the elevated level of the interface to the parallel execution environment per the platform architecture of Figure 1 provides a compelling motive for why the software technology development activities for parallel cloud computing should be based on this execution environment model. More specifically, the major reasons for software ecosystem for parallel computing platform to be based on the dynamic parallel execution environment interface standard per figure include:

  1. Greater productivity through less low-level work: The execution environment in the platform architecture per Figure 1 automates dynamic parallel execution routines in (programmable) hardware, providing higher level application development interface for the software of the PaaS.
  2. Higher performance and scalability via eliminating system software overhead by hardware automation of system tasks such as optimally allocating processing core capacity, scheduling and placing application tasks for execution, inter-task communications, billing etc.
  3. Built-in cloud computing security from the hardware level up: unauthorized interactions between different applications simply not enabled in the hardware.
  4. Open source software and open standard interface between development and execution environment: users have full freedom to choose where to host the development environment as well as the parallelized application executables produced by it. Any execution environment implementation complying to the simple, open execution environment interface standard per Figure 1 is a possible hosting option so there is nothing vendor specific about this platform architecture, and users will not suffer from vendor lock-in.

Technical Overview
Application software developers access the envisioned open parallel cloud computing PaaS through its Integrated Development Environment (IDE) to build application software optimized for parallel processing on dynamically shared cloud processors. The IDE provides a web-based program flow chart, code advisor, profiler etc. (GUI) tools to assist and automate parallelizing the users' programs. The IDE also includes the automated back-end development tool chain, incl. compiler, linker and loader programs, for building and executing the user's parallelized application in a processing hardware complying to the discussed execution environment interface standard per Figure 1. The IDE further equips the user application programs with the system software that automates and optimizes the minimal (to none) interactions between the user programs and the hardware operating system of the dynamic parallel execution environment of the parallel cloud computing PaaS[2].

The IDE software can be hosted with the same parallel computing PaaS as the applications it produces. This practice avoids the need for cross-compiling, and enables straightforward and rapid-cycle interactive testing, debugging and optimization of the parallelized application programs, as well as deployment and scaling releases of the user applications.

The software of the parallel cloud computing PaaS is developed and made fully available as an open-source project, and can be integrated with popular open-source IDEs. In essence, this software project is to add the parallel programming development tools to the major open source IDE and PaaS code bases, while utilizing (and further developing) the applicable existing features from them.

The openness of the promoted comprehensive parallel cloud computing PaaS, besides the open-source IDE, is also manifested via the simple, open standard interface between the development and execution environments of the PaaS architecture. This open standard interface enables any user to host the IDE as well as the parallel program executables produced by it anywhere, e.g. at the user premises, or with ThroughPuter or any 3rd party. Alternative I/PaaS providers furthermore are encouraged to support the execution/development environment interface via their respective implementations of either side or both sides of that interface. The customizable, open-source IDE and open-standard interface to the execution environment provides the users and collaborators a flexible and productive way to approach the major, must-solve parallel cloud application development and execution challenge that is facing much of the software industry and its customers.

The efficient dynamic parallel processing features - which will be critically needed as user application throughput requirements begin exceeding what is available from conventional sequential execution models, and as the parallelized applications will be cloud hosted -- of this open-source software based PaaS are delivered by an execution environment that provides the necessary, dynamic parallel execution core to application task instance allocation, task instance to core assignment, and inter-task communication capabilities. These critical parallel execution capabilities are an integrated feature in the ThroughPuter hosted commercial PaaS offering.

For reference on ThroughPuter's implementation of the dynamic parallel execution environment for the open parallel computing PaaS architecture per Figure 1, the below Figure 2 shows ThroughPuter's realtime application load adaptive manycore processor architecture, highlighting its hardware logic automated operating system functionality enabling a number of customer application programs to securely, dynamically and cost-efficiently share the processing capacity of the manycore processor hardware.

Figure 2: Reference diagram for ThroughPuter manycore processors with hardware-automated multi-user parallel processing optimized operating system.

ThroughPuter's hardware operating system, manycore fabric memory and I/O subsystems are largely responsible for the architectural security, performance and cost-efficiency benefits of the ThroughPuter PaaS. However, the IDE hides the actual execution environment features from the user; the user does not need to be aware of the novel hardware-implemented capabilities of this dynamic parallel execution environment in order to realize the performance benefits.

A possible core to application task/instance allocation scenario over a few core allocation periods (CAPs) is illustrated in Figure 3 below, along with associated highlights of the feature benefits.

Figure 3: Dynamic core to application task instance assignment scenario in the execution environment of the PaaS per Figure 1.

In reference to the dynamic core assignment scenario per Figure 3, it shall be remembered that in the PaaS architecture per Figure 1, the software does not need to be aware of the dynamic parallel execution matters, but can instead maintain a virtual static view of the execution environment where each possible application task instance is constantly mapped to its virtual dedicated core, thus simplifying both the development environment as well as the application software while improving the development productivity and runtime performance.

Architectural Advantages of Cross-layer Optimized Parallel Computing PaaS
The platform model presented here is crucial for enabling application on-time throughput performance scalability in the age of parallel cloud computing, as illustrated in Figures 4 and 5.

Figure 4: Scalability problem in parallel cloud computing due to the system software overhead.

As illustrated in Figure 4, when relying on system software for managing the parallel execution, there is a limit to scalability of cloud computing platforms in the parallel processing era, as application performance improvement begins requiring ever finer grades of intra-application parallelism (i.e. more tasks and task instances per application). This is due to that the parallel processing system software overhead (the need to dynamically coordinate and manage concurrent tasks and parallel processing resources) increases with the number of applications as well as their tasks and instances, and the number of processing cores being dynamically shared among them. When relying on system software to handle parallel execution routines, the processing capacity of a given manycore processor (array) is split between processing user applications and system software, with the rate of system software increasing with scale, at the expense of the user applications. This causes that after some point, the system-wide application processing on-time throughput (the product of number of cores and the percentage of the cores' processing capacity available for user applications) will begin decreasing as the system is scaled up (by adding processing cores and parallelized applications and their tasks sharing the cores).

To solve this fundamental challenge affecting the scalability of cloud computing in the parallel processing era, the processing hardware needs to raise up to this challenge and handle the parallel processing routines in the hardware of the manycore processors, so that the processing cores will be optimally used for processing the user applications (rather than for processing the system functions, and/or be locked to low utilization due to non-load-adaptive allocation).

The impact of the hardware automation of the parallel processing system functions in the hardware of manycore processors per Figures 1-3 is illustrated in Figure 5 below.

Figure 5: Scalability solution for parallel cloud computing delivered via automating the parallel execution system functions in hardware.

The enabling of scalability of cloud computing platforms and cloud applications' on-time processing throughput in the emerging era of (inter and intra) application parallel processing by the execution environment model per Figure 1 serves as a further compelling reason for concentrating the efforts to address the popular parallel programming challenge via the herein presented open parallel cloud computing platform model. Parties interested in collaboration to realize this much needed comprehensive, open source parallel cloud computing platform can contact ThroughPuter via [email protected].

Further Reading
Relevant further material on the parallel program development and execution challenges is available at:

References:

  1. These include: monitoring application processing load demands, periodically allocating processing resources (cores) among the applications based on their processing load variations and contractual entitlements, prioritizing and selecting application task instances for execution, mapping selected task instances for execution on their assigned cores and accordingly configuring the IO and memory access subsystems, arranging the inter task communications, plus contract billing based on applications' resource entitlement and usage.
  2. These interactions are mainly limited to the application program, via the PaaS tool-generated system software, providing to the hardware operating system of the execution environment (per Figure 1) a listing of its schedulable tasks/instances in their priority order; there is very little overhead in interacting with such hardware operating system. Where applicable, the hardware operating system of the PaaS is able to deduce the processing core demands and task/instance priority orders of the applications by itself by monitoring the input processing data load levels for the applications. This feature, where employed for a given application (or task group), will effectively eliminate all the parallelization system software overhead for the given application (task group).

More Stories By Mark Sandstrom

Mark Sandstrom is the president of ThroughPuter, Inc., developer of dynamic parallel program execution technologies with a business model of PaaS provider. He is an innovator and strategist with experience in the high technology industry since 1995, including at Optimum Communications Services, Inc., Turin Networks, Inc. (acquired by Force 10, then by Dell), Cyras Systems, Inc. (acquired by CIENA) and Tellabs, Inc.

Sandstrom holds an MSEE degree from Helsinki University of Technology and Executive MBA from Golden Gate University, and has been granted sixteen US and UK patents in fields of networking and computing system throughput optimization and management system streamlining.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


Cloud Expo Breaking News
After a couple of false starts, cloud-based desktop solutions are picking up steam, driven by trends such as BYOD and pervasive high-speed connectivity. In his session at 15th Cloud Expo, Seth Bostock, CEO of IndependenceIT, cuts through the hype and the acronyms, and discusses the emergence of full-featured cloud workspaces that do for the desktop what cloud infrastructure did for the server. He’ll discuss VDI vs DaaS, implementation strategies and evaluation criteria.
There will be 50 billion Internet connected devices by 2020. Today, every manufacturer has a propriety protocol and an app. How do we securely integrate these "things" into our lives and businesses in a way that we can easily control and manage? Even better, how do we integrate these "things" so that they control and manage each other so our lives become more convenient or our businesses become more profitable and/or safe? We have heard that the best interface is no interface. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Co-Founder & CTO at Octoblu, Inc., will discuss how these devices generate enough data to learn our behaviors and simplify/improve our lives. What if we could connect everything to everything? I'm not only talking about connecting things to things but also systems, cloud services, and people. Add in a little machine learning and artificial intelligence and now we have something interesting...
Cloud computing started a technology revolution; now DevOps is driving that revolution forward. By enabling new approaches to service delivery, cloud and DevOps together are delivering even greater speed, agility, and efficiency. No wonder leading innovators are adopting DevOps and cloud together! In his session at DevOps Summit, Andi Mann, Vice President of Strategic Solutions at CA Technologies, will explore the synergies in these two approaches, with practical tips, techniques, research data, war stories, case studies, and recommendations.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloudian, Inc., the leading provider of hybrid cloud storage solutions, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Cloudian is a Foster City, Calif.-based software company specializing in cloud storage. Cloudian HyperStore® is an S3-compatible cloud object storage platform that enables service providers and enterprises to build reliable, affordable and scalable hybrid cloud storage solutions. Cloudian actively partners with leading cloud computing environments including Amazon Web Services, Citrix Cloud Platform, Apache CloudStack, OpenStack and the vast ecosystem of S3 compatible tools and applications. Cloudian's customers include Vodafone, Nextel, NTT, Nifty, and LunaCloud. The company has additional offices in China and Japan.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Esri has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Esri inspires and enables people to positively impact the future through a deeper, geographic understanding of the changing world around them. For more information, visit http://www.esri.com.
Cloud Computing is evolving into a Big Three of Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud, and Microsoft Azure. Cloud 360: Multi-Cloud Bootcamp, being held Nov 4–5, 2014, in conjunction with 15th Cloud Expo in Santa Clara, CA, delivers a real-world demonstration of how to deploy and configure a scalable and available web application on all three platforms. The Cloud 360 Bootcamp, led by Janakiram MSV, an analyst with Gigaom Research, is the first bootcamp that introduces the core concepts of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) based on the workings of the Big Three platforms – Amazon EC2, Google Compute Engine, and Azure VMs. Bootcamp attendees will get to see the big picture and also receive the knowledge needed to make the best cloud decisions for their business applications and entire enterprise IT organization.
“Distrix fits into the overall cloud and IoT model around software-defined networking. There’s a broad category around software-defined networking that’s focused on data center, and we focus on the WAN,” explained Jay Friedman, President of Distrix, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at the Internet of @ThingsExpo, held June 10-12, 2014, at the Javits Center in New York City. Internet of @ThingsExpo 2014 Silicon Valley, November 4–6, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading IoT industry players in the world.
The Internet of Things promises to transform businesses (and lives), but navigating the business and technical path to success can be difficult to understand. In his session at 15th Internet of @ThingsExpo, Chad Jones, Vice President, Product Strategy of LogMeIn's Xively IoT Platform, will show you how to approach creating broadly successful connected customer solutions using real world business transformation studies including New England BioLabs and more.
Scott Jenson leads a project called The Physical Web within the Chrome team at Google. Project members are working to take the scalability and openness of the web and use it to talk to the exponentially exploding range of smart devices. Nearly every company today working on the IoT comes up with the same basic solution: use my server and you'll be fine. But if we really believe there will be trillions of these devices, that just can't scale. We need a system that is open a scalable and by using the URL as a basic building block, we open this up and get the same resilience that the web enjoys.
“The Internet of Things is a wave that has arrived and it’s growing really fast. The concern at Aria Systems is making sure that people understand the ramifications of their attempts to monetize whatever it is they build on the Internet of Things," explained C Brendan O’Brien, Co-founder and Chief Architect at Aria Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at the Internet of @ThingsExpo, held June 10-12, 2014, at the Javits Center in New York City. Internet of @ThingsExpo 2014 Silicon Valley, November 4–6, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading IoT industry players in the world.
The Internet of Things is a natural complement to the cloud and related technologies such as Big Data, analytics, and mobility. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Joe Weinman will lay out four generic strategies – digital disciplines – to exploit emerging digital technologies for strategic advantage. Joe Weinman has held executive leadership positions at Bell Labs, AT&T, Hewlett-Packard, and Telx, in areas such as corporate strategy, business development, product management, operations, and R&D.
SYS-CON Events announced today that DevOps.com has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's “DevOps Summit at Cloud Expo,” which will take place on June 10–12, 2014, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York. DevOps.com is where the world meets DevOps. It is the largest collection of original content relating to DevOps on the web today Featuring up-to-the-minute news, feature stories, blogs, bylined articles and more, DevOps.com is where the thought leaders of the DevOps movement make their ideas known.
There are 182 billion emails sent every day, generating a lot of data about how recipients and ISPs respond. Many marketers take a more-is-better approach to stats, preferring to have the ability to slice and dice their email lists based numerous arbitrary stats. However, fundamentally what really matters is whether or not sending an email to a particular recipient will generate value. Data Scientists can design high-level insights such as engagement prediction models and content clusters that allow marketers to cut through the noise and design their campaigns around strong, predictive signals, rather than arbitrary statistics. SendGrid sends up to half a billion emails a day for customers such as Pinterest and GitHub. All this email adds up to more text than produced in the entire twitterverse. We track events like clicks, opens and deliveries to help improve deliverability for our customers – adding up to over 50 billion useful events every month. While SendGrid data covers only abo...
SYS-CON Events announced today that the Web Host Industry Review has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Since 2000, The Web Host Industry Review has made a name for itself as the foremost authority of the Web hosting industry providing reliable, insightful and comprehensive news, reviews and resources to the hosting community. TheWHIR Blogs provides a community of expert industry perspectives. The Web Host Industry Review Magazine also offers a business-minded, issue-driven perspective of interest to executives and decision-makers. WHIR TV offers on demand web hosting video interviews and web hosting video features of the key persons and events of the web hosting industry. WHIR Events brings together like-minded hosting industry professionals and decision-makers in local communities. TheWHIR is an iNET Interactive property.
SYS-CON Events announced today that O'Reilly Media has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. O'Reilly Media spreads the knowledge of innovators through its books, online services, magazines, and conferences. Since 1978, O'Reilly Media has been a chronicler and catalyst of cutting-edge development, homing in on the technology trends that really matter and spurring their adoption by amplifying "faint signals" from the alpha geeks who are creating the future. An active participant in the technology community, the company has a long history of advocacy, meme-making, and evangelism.