Click here to close now.




















Welcome!

@CloudExpo Authors: Kaazing Blog, Elizabeth White, Pat Romanski, Ian Khan, Dennis Griffin

Blog Feed Post

Homomorphic Encryption and Cloud Security: The Practicalities

homomorphic encryption data security in the cloud Cloud Security  homomorphic encryption and cloud security Homomorphic Encryption and Cloud Security: The PracticalitiesThis article focuses on homomorphic encryption techniques and what they can mean in practice for cloud computing in the next few years; it is not a mathematical primer.

Suppose you want to hire someone to do a job for you, but you suspect she might leak sensitive details of your business to your enemies. The immediate solution: don’t hire her. But real life is often not so clear cut. Your prospective employee may be very good at a particular job, and you don’t want to lose her skills; while the risk that she turns bad may be low and you need the job done.

This general real life problem has had many solutions over the centuries. People have written contracts with confidentiality clauses, threatened court action, come up with rules for the workplace, tried to instill pride in their workforce, and sometimes they’ve even begged for good behavior.

One particularly nice concept: suppose you could give the job to the talented lady, but seal it in an opaque black sack. She wouldn’t be able to see inside, but would manipulate pieces by putting her hands into the dark sack to get the job done. This way, she would use her talents without discovering your secrets.

The disadvantage is obvious: very few jobs can actually be done blindly, without knowledge and mutual trust. But there are real life examples of the black bag approach. For example, spies work in “cells” designed so that they know as little as possible about other “cells.”

Cloud computing and homomorphic encryption

Cloud computing can suffer from some of the problems we described above. Suppose you have sensitive data information:  health data, financial data, or military secrets. And imagine you need to use a cloud “as a service” solution that takes your data and produces a report. The goal is to compare all the pieces of data and find the “important flukes.” In healthcare, an important fluke could be overpayment for a patient’s treatment. In finance, it could be a credit card fraud event. In the military, it could be data about a cyber-attack hiding between normal pieces of data.

In each of these cases, the “normal” data is sensitive: health, money, “normal” military activity. Still, for valid reason, you cannot do the analysis yourself in your own “secure” space. Somebody else has the expertise to do this particular analysis for you, and is using cloud computing because the job involves massive amounts of computational power.

 

Your find yourself with sensitive data in a cloud, on servers you do not own, and a programs running there which you may not own either.

Cloud encryption is always about hiding secrets.

You take a bunch of readable data and make it unreadable by scrambling the characters and numbers in the data so they don’t make sense. Only someone who has the “encryption key” can reverse the process, decrypt the data, and make it readable again. A typical decryption key could be 64 random characters long, yet by using known encryption techniques (like AES, “Advanced Encryption Standard”), that key can make terabytes completely scrambled and unreadable. Only if you have those 64 characters, the key, can you reverse the process and make the terabytes readable again.

In our case, however, there is a twist.  We want the data to be completely unreadable, but we want the program mentioned before (the one running on servers you do not own and doing a job that requires expertise and computing power the cloud provides) to be able to do its job.

Ideally, we want the program to do its job on data that is always encrypted (and remains encrypted) and successfully come up with a useful result.

Homomorphic encryption makes this possible.  Homomorphic encryption is a set of encryption techniques that will scramble the data based on a key, but allow a program to do some useful work on the unreadable encrypted data. The program cannot understand the data, but it can do something useful on it, without giving it away: an opaque black sack for cloud computing.

Steps to homomorphic encryption: examples of “something useful”

People have started figuring out useful things that can be done to encrypted data by taking a practical approach. Instead of saying that anything can be done in the black sack, people are starting out by saying that something can be done. Here are some examples of “something:”

  • A specific statistical function, perhaps taking the average of two numbers.

Both numbers are encrypted and the result is also encrypted. Only the holder of the encryption key can know the real values of the numbers and the result. However, a machine in the cloud can take the encrypted values and average them, sending an encrypted result back to the “owner.” The owner can then decrypt that result back at home.

  • Searching a person’s genome data to find whether that person has a specific gene that is especially harmful to health while protecting privacy.

The data that describes the genome is encrypted as is the description of the specific gene being searched. Both are uploaded to the cloud servers and the result comes back: the gene is either found or not. But only the person who owns the encryption key knows the genome (and the identity of the human being with that genome); and only they know what they were looking for. Was it a gene that may signal cancer? Or perhaps a gene that may signal high blood pressure? Only they know.

Techniques like these have been described in academic literature. They have not yet been commercialized, but they can really work. You’ll notice that the researchers have been smart.  They focused on a useful and specific problem that can most likely be solved. This is sometimes called “partially homomorphic encryption” and sometimes called “somewhat homomorphic encryption” because the scheme is constructed with one focused goal in mind. It doesn’t try to solve everything.

Fully homomorphic encryption

A more ambitious approach is fully homomorphic encryption (FHE). The Holy Grail is to encrypt any data for any purpose, so that a program running on cloud servers could do almost anything to the data and generate useful results. But only the owner of the data could actually understand the data and understand the result, because only the owner has the key. The running cloud servers would run on encrypted data and produce an encrypted result.

This would be great to have. Recently, Gentry made progress in this field by showing that any function that is made up of additions and multiplications can be computed on homomorphically encrypted data, using what has naturally become called the Gentry scheme.

“Any combination of additions and multiplications” really is quite a lot – in fact almost any math function can be broken down into additions and multiplications, so Gentry’s result is quite strong.

However, there are some practical limitations that have thus far, stopped us from using FHE. One is performance; which can be billions of times slower than the “somewhat” or “partial” approach. Though it is currently being worked on, a big gap persists.

Another limitation to FHE is the kind of problem it can solve. Suppose you wanted to use FHE with a medical expert system. Such systems work more with questions and answers then with addition and multiplication. They try to diagnose a disease based on gathering patient information, applying some logical rules and then asking more questions. This is a logical process and a major part of it is interactive – asking questions and learning. The best of these systems also constantly change their rules, as they learn more about how patients and diseases really work. Is a learning system based on rules and interactive back-and-forth questions and reasoning – easily broken down into addition and multiplication?

So FHE has limitations based on performance and limitations based on type of problem it might solve.

Are there any commercial implementations of homomorphic encryption?

The world’s first commercial implementation is Homomorphic Key Management, a “partially homomorphic” approach. Homomorphic Key Management is focused on the specific problem of encrypting the encryption keys themselves and keeping them safe and secret in the cloud, while still being able to use them for encrypting data. This work was done by Porticor in 2011-2012 and a commercial product entered the market at the end of 2012.

Several academic teams are now working on bringing additional “somewhat homomorphic” approaches to market, though as far as we know, none other has yet been commercialized. We hopefully look toward the coming years to produce commercial results relevant to the study of many fields, such as genomics and specific computations within databases.

In parallel, Academia continues to work hard on making FHE more efficient.

The post Homomorphic Encryption and Cloud Security: The Practicalities appeared first on Porticor Cloud Security.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Gilad Parann-Nissany

Gilad Parann-Nissany, Founder and CEO at Porticor is a pioneer of Cloud Computing. He has built SaaS Clouds for medium and small enterprises at SAP (CTO Small Business); contributing to several SAP products and reaching more than 8 million users. Recently he has created a consumer Cloud at G.ho.st - a cloud operating system that delighted hundreds of thousands of users while providing browser-based and mobile access to data, people and a variety of cloud-based applications. He is now CEO of Porticor, a leader in Virtual Privacy and Cloud Security.

@CloudExpo Stories
Too often with compelling new technologies market participants become overly enamored with that attractiveness of the technology and neglect underlying business drivers. This tendency, what some call the “newest shiny object syndrome,” is understandable given that virtually all of us are heavily engaged in technology. But it is also mistaken. Without concrete business cases driving its deployment, IoT, like many other technologies before it, will fade into obscurity.
Any Ops team trying to support a company in today’s cloud-connected world knows that a new way of thinking is required – one just as dramatic than the shift from Ops to DevOps. The diversity of modern operations requires teams to focus their impact on breadth vs. depth. In his session at DevOps Summit, Adam Serediuk, Director of Operations at xMatters, Inc., will discuss the strategic requirements of evolving from Ops to DevOps, and why modern Operations has begun leveraging the “NoOps” approa...
IBM’s Blue Box Cloud, powered by OpenStack, is now available in any of IBM’s globally integrated cloud data centers running SoftLayer infrastructure. Less than 90 days after its acquisition of Blue Box, IBM has integrated its Blue Box Cloud Dedicated private-cloud-as-a-service into its broader portfolio of OpenStack® based solutions. The announcement, made today at the OpenStack Silicon Valley event, further highlights IBM’s continued support to deliver OpenStack solutions across all cloud depl...
In their Live Hack” presentation at 17th Cloud Expo, Stephen Coty and Paul Fletcher, Chief Security Evangelists at Alert Logic, will provide the audience with a chance to see a live demonstration of the common tools cyber attackers use to attack cloud and traditional IT systems. This “Live Hack” uses open source attack tools that are free and available for download by anybody. Attendees will learn where to find and how to operate these tools for the purpose of testing their own IT infrastructu...
Red Hat is investing in Tesora, the number one contributor to OpenStack Trove Database as a Service (DBaaS) also ranked among the top 20 companies contributing to OpenStack overall. Tesora, the company bringing OpenStack Trove Database as a Service (DBaaS) to the enterprise, has announced that Red Hat and others have invested in the company as a part of Tesora's latest funding round. The funding agreement expands on the ongoing collaboration between Tesora and Red Hat, which dates back to Febr...
SYS-CON Events announced today that DataClear Inc. will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. The DataClear ‘BlackBox’ is the only solution that moves your PC, browsing and data out of the United States and away from prying (and spying) eyes. Its solution automatically builds you a clean, on-demand, virus free, new virtual cloud based PC outside of the United States, and wipes it clean...
Cloud and datacenter migration innovator AppZero has joined the Microsoft Enterprise Cloud Alliance Program. AppZero is a fast, flexible way to move Windows Server applications from any source machine – physical or virtual – to any destination server, in any cloud or datacenter, using its patented container technology. AppZero’s container is also called a Virtual Application Appliance (VAA). To facilitate Microsoft Azure onboarding, AppZero has two purpose-built offerings: AppZero SP for Azure,...
WSM International, the pioneer and leader in server migration services, has announced an agreement with WHOA.com, a leader in providing secure public, private and hybrid cloud computing services. Under terms of the agreement, WSM will provide migration services to WHOA.com customers to relocate some or all of their applications, digital assets, and other computing workloads to WHOA.com enterprise-class, secure cloud infrastructure. The migration services include detailed evaluation and planning...
SYS-CON Events announced today that G2G3 will exhibit at SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit Silicon Valley, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Based on a collective appreciation for user experience, design, and technology, G2G3 is uniquely qualified and motivated to redefine how organizations and people engage in an increasingly digital world.
SYS-CON Events announced today that IceWarp will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. IceWarp, the leader of cloud and on-premise messaging, delivers secured email, chat, documents, conferencing and collaboration to today's mobile workforce, all in one unified interface
In 2014, the market witnessed a massive migration to the cloud as enterprises finally overcame their fears of the cloud’s viability, security, etc. Over the past 18 months, AWS, Google and Microsoft have waged an ongoing battle through a wave of price cuts and new features. For IT executives, sorting through all the noise to make the best cloud investment decisions has become daunting. Enterprises can and are moving away from a "one size fits all" cloud approach. The new competitive field has ...
With the proliferation of connected devices underpinning new Internet of Things systems, Brandon Schulz, Director of Luxoft IoT – Retail, will be looking at the transformation of the retail customer experience in brick and mortar stores in his session at @ThingsExpo. Questions he will address include: Will beacons drop to the wayside like QR codes, or be a proximity-based profit driver? How will the customer experience change in stores of all types when everything can be instrumented and a...
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
This Enterprise Strategy Group lab validation report of the NEC Express5800/R320 server with Intel® Xeon® processor presents the benefits of 99.999% uptime NEC fault-tolerant servers that lower overall virtualized server total cost of ownership. This report also includes survey data on the significant costs associated with system outages impacting enterprise and web applications. Click Here to Download Report Now!
Enterprises can achieve rigorous IT security as well as improved DevOps practices and Cloud economics by taking a new, cloud-native approach to application delivery. Because the attack surface for cloud applications is dramatically different than for highly controlled data centers, a disciplined and multi-layered approach that spans all of your processes, staff, vendors and technologies is required. This may sound expensive and time consuming to achieve as you plan how to move selected applicati...
Through WebRTC, audio and video communications are being embedded more easily than ever into applications, helping carriers, enterprises and independent software vendors deliver greater functionality to their end users. With today’s business world increasingly focused on outcomes, users’ growing calls for ease of use, and businesses craving smarter, tighter integration, what’s the next step in delivering a richer, more immersive experience? That richer, more fully integrated experience comes ab...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Pythian, a global IT services company specializing in helping companies leverage disruptive technologies to optimize revenue-generating systems, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 17th Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Founded in 1997, Pythian is a global IT services company that helps companies compete by adopting disruptive technologies such as cloud, Big Data, advance...
Organizations from small to large are increasingly adopting cloud solutions to deliver essential business services at a much lower cost. According to cyber security experts, the frequency and severity of cyber-attacks are on the rise, causing alarm to businesses and customers across a variety of industries. To defend against exploits like these, a company must adopt a comprehensive security defense strategy that is designed for their business. In 2015, organizations such as United Airlines, Sony...
As more and more data is generated from a variety of connected devices, the need to get insights from this data and predict future behavior and trends is increasingly essential for businesses. Real-time stream processing is needed in a variety of different industries such as Manufacturing, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Finance, Online Retail, Smart Grids, and Healthcare. Azure Stream Analytics is a fully managed distributed stream computation service that provides low latency, scalable processing of ...
Culture is the most important ingredient of DevOps. The challenge for most organizations is defining and communicating a vision of beneficial DevOps culture for their organizations, and then facilitating the changes needed to achieve that. Often this comes down to an ability to provide true leadership. As a CIO, are your direct reports IT managers or are they IT leaders? The hard truth is that many IT managers have risen through the ranks based on their technical skills, not their leadership ab...