@CloudExpo Authors: Elizabeth White, Pat Romanski, Liz McMillan, Hollis Tibbetts, Carmen Gonzalez

Blog Feed Post

Homomorphic Encryption and Cloud Security: The Practicalities

homomorphic encryption data security in the cloud Cloud Security  homomorphic encryption and cloud security Homomorphic Encryption and Cloud Security: The PracticalitiesThis article focuses on homomorphic encryption techniques and what they can mean in practice for cloud computing in the next few years; it is not a mathematical primer.

Suppose you want to hire someone to do a job for you, but you suspect she might leak sensitive details of your business to your enemies. The immediate solution: don’t hire her. But real life is often not so clear cut. Your prospective employee may be very good at a particular job, and you don’t want to lose her skills; while the risk that she turns bad may be low and you need the job done.

This general real life problem has had many solutions over the centuries. People have written contracts with confidentiality clauses, threatened court action, come up with rules for the workplace, tried to instill pride in their workforce, and sometimes they’ve even begged for good behavior.

One particularly nice concept: suppose you could give the job to the talented lady, but seal it in an opaque black sack. She wouldn’t be able to see inside, but would manipulate pieces by putting her hands into the dark sack to get the job done. This way, she would use her talents without discovering your secrets.

The disadvantage is obvious: very few jobs can actually be done blindly, without knowledge and mutual trust. But there are real life examples of the black bag approach. For example, spies work in “cells” designed so that they know as little as possible about other “cells.”

Cloud computing and homomorphic encryption

Cloud computing can suffer from some of the problems we described above. Suppose you have sensitive data information:  health data, financial data, or military secrets. And imagine you need to use a cloud “as a service” solution that takes your data and produces a report. The goal is to compare all the pieces of data and find the “important flukes.” In healthcare, an important fluke could be overpayment for a patient’s treatment. In finance, it could be a credit card fraud event. In the military, it could be data about a cyber-attack hiding between normal pieces of data.

In each of these cases, the “normal” data is sensitive: health, money, “normal” military activity. Still, for valid reason, you cannot do the analysis yourself in your own “secure” space. Somebody else has the expertise to do this particular analysis for you, and is using cloud computing because the job involves massive amounts of computational power.


Your find yourself with sensitive data in a cloud, on servers you do not own, and a programs running there which you may not own either.

Cloud encryption is always about hiding secrets.

You take a bunch of readable data and make it unreadable by scrambling the characters and numbers in the data so they don’t make sense. Only someone who has the “encryption key” can reverse the process, decrypt the data, and make it readable again. A typical decryption key could be 64 random characters long, yet by using known encryption techniques (like AES, “Advanced Encryption Standard”), that key can make terabytes completely scrambled and unreadable. Only if you have those 64 characters, the key, can you reverse the process and make the terabytes readable again.

In our case, however, there is a twist.  We want the data to be completely unreadable, but we want the program mentioned before (the one running on servers you do not own and doing a job that requires expertise and computing power the cloud provides) to be able to do its job.

Ideally, we want the program to do its job on data that is always encrypted (and remains encrypted) and successfully come up with a useful result.

Homomorphic encryption makes this possible.  Homomorphic encryption is a set of encryption techniques that will scramble the data based on a key, but allow a program to do some useful work on the unreadable encrypted data. The program cannot understand the data, but it can do something useful on it, without giving it away: an opaque black sack for cloud computing.

Steps to homomorphic encryption: examples of “something useful”

People have started figuring out useful things that can be done to encrypted data by taking a practical approach. Instead of saying that anything can be done in the black sack, people are starting out by saying that something can be done. Here are some examples of “something:”

  • A specific statistical function, perhaps taking the average of two numbers.

Both numbers are encrypted and the result is also encrypted. Only the holder of the encryption key can know the real values of the numbers and the result. However, a machine in the cloud can take the encrypted values and average them, sending an encrypted result back to the “owner.” The owner can then decrypt that result back at home.

  • Searching a person’s genome data to find whether that person has a specific gene that is especially harmful to health while protecting privacy.

The data that describes the genome is encrypted as is the description of the specific gene being searched. Both are uploaded to the cloud servers and the result comes back: the gene is either found or not. But only the person who owns the encryption key knows the genome (and the identity of the human being with that genome); and only they know what they were looking for. Was it a gene that may signal cancer? Or perhaps a gene that may signal high blood pressure? Only they know.

Techniques like these have been described in academic literature. They have not yet been commercialized, but they can really work. You’ll notice that the researchers have been smart.  They focused on a useful and specific problem that can most likely be solved. This is sometimes called “partially homomorphic encryption” and sometimes called “somewhat homomorphic encryption” because the scheme is constructed with one focused goal in mind. It doesn’t try to solve everything.

Fully homomorphic encryption

A more ambitious approach is fully homomorphic encryption (FHE). The Holy Grail is to encrypt any data for any purpose, so that a program running on cloud servers could do almost anything to the data and generate useful results. But only the owner of the data could actually understand the data and understand the result, because only the owner has the key. The running cloud servers would run on encrypted data and produce an encrypted result.

This would be great to have. Recently, Gentry made progress in this field by showing that any function that is made up of additions and multiplications can be computed on homomorphically encrypted data, using what has naturally become called the Gentry scheme.

“Any combination of additions and multiplications” really is quite a lot – in fact almost any math function can be broken down into additions and multiplications, so Gentry’s result is quite strong.

However, there are some practical limitations that have thus far, stopped us from using FHE. One is performance; which can be billions of times slower than the “somewhat” or “partial” approach. Though it is currently being worked on, a big gap persists.

Another limitation to FHE is the kind of problem it can solve. Suppose you wanted to use FHE with a medical expert system. Such systems work more with questions and answers then with addition and multiplication. They try to diagnose a disease based on gathering patient information, applying some logical rules and then asking more questions. This is a logical process and a major part of it is interactive – asking questions and learning. The best of these systems also constantly change their rules, as they learn more about how patients and diseases really work. Is a learning system based on rules and interactive back-and-forth questions and reasoning – easily broken down into addition and multiplication?

So FHE has limitations based on performance and limitations based on type of problem it might solve.

Are there any commercial implementations of homomorphic encryption?

The world’s first commercial implementation is Homomorphic Key Management, a “partially homomorphic” approach. Homomorphic Key Management is focused on the specific problem of encrypting the encryption keys themselves and keeping them safe and secret in the cloud, while still being able to use them for encrypting data. This work was done by Porticor in 2011-2012 and a commercial product entered the market at the end of 2012.

Several academic teams are now working on bringing additional “somewhat homomorphic” approaches to market, though as far as we know, none other has yet been commercialized. We hopefully look toward the coming years to produce commercial results relevant to the study of many fields, such as genomics and specific computations within databases.

In parallel, Academia continues to work hard on making FHE more efficient.

The post Homomorphic Encryption and Cloud Security: The Practicalities appeared first on Porticor Cloud Security.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Gilad Parann-Nissany

Gilad Parann-Nissany, Founder and CEO at Porticor is a pioneer of Cloud Computing. He has built SaaS Clouds for medium and small enterprises at SAP (CTO Small Business); contributing to several SAP products and reaching more than 8 million users. Recently he has created a consumer Cloud at G.ho.st - a cloud operating system that delighted hundreds of thousands of users while providing browser-based and mobile access to data, people and a variety of cloud-based applications. He is now CEO of Porticor, a leader in Virtual Privacy and Cloud Security.

@CloudExpo Stories
Enterprises have been using both Big Data and virtualization for years. Until recently, however, most enterprises have not combined the two. Big Data's demands for higher levels of performance, the ability to control quality-of-service (QoS), and the ability to adhere to SLAs have kept it on bare metal, apart from the modern data center cloud. With recent technology innovations, we've seen the advantages of bare metal erode to such a degree that the enhanced flexibility and reduced costs that cl...
“Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CloudBerry Backup is a leading cross-platform cloud backup and disaster recovery solution integrated with major public cloud services, such as Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud Platform.
In the next forty months – just over three years – businesses will undergo extraordinary changes. The exponential growth of digitization and machine learning will see a step function change in how businesses create value, satisfy customers, and outperform their competition. In the next forty months companies will take the actions that will see them get to the next level of the game called Capitalism. Or they won’t – game over. The winners of today and tomorrow think differently, follow different...
@DevOpsSummit has been named the ‘Top DevOps Influencer' by iTrend. iTrend processes millions of conversations, tweets, interactions, news articles, press releases, blog posts - and extract meaning form them and analyzes mobile and desktop software platforms used to communicate, various metadata (such as geo location), and automation tools. In overall placement, @DevOpsSummit ranked as the number one ‘DevOps Influencer' followed by @CloudExpo at third, and @MicroservicesE at 24th.
In his general session at 19th Cloud Expo, Manish Dixit, VP of Product and Engineering at Dice, will discuss how Dice leverages data insights and tools to help both tech professionals and recruiters better understand how skills relate to each other and which skills are in high demand using interactive visualizations and salary indicator tools to maximize earning potential. Manish Dixit is VP of Product and Engineering at Dice. As the leader of the Product, Engineering and Data Sciences team a...
The security needs of IoT environments require a strong, proven approach to maintain security, trust and privacy in their ecosystem. Assurance and protection of device identity, secure data encryption and authentication are the key security challenges organizations are trying to address when integrating IoT devices. This holds true for IoT applications in a wide range of industries, for example, healthcare, consumer devices, and manufacturing. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Lancen LaChance, vic...
Regulatory requirements exist to promote the controlled sharing of information, while protecting the privacy and/or security of the information. Regulations for each type of information have their own set of rules, policies, and guidelines. Cloud Service Providers (CSP) are faced with increasing demand for services at decreasing prices. Demonstrating and maintaining compliance with regulations is a nontrivial task and doing so against numerous sets of regulatory requirements can be daunting task...
What are the successful IoT innovations from emerging markets? What are the unique challenges and opportunities from these markets? How did the constraints in connectivity among others lead to groundbreaking insights? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Carmen Feliciano, a Principal at AMDG, will answer all these questions and share how you can apply IoT best practices and frameworks from the emerging markets to your own business.
Big Data has been changing the world. IoT fuels the further transformation recently. How are Big Data and IoT related? In his session at @BigDataExpo, Tony Shan, a renowned visionary and thought leader, will explore the interplay of Big Data and IoT. He will anatomize Big Data and IoT separately in terms of what, which, why, where, when, who, how and how much. He will then analyze the relationship between IoT and Big Data, specifically the drilldown of how the 4Vs of Big Data (Volume, Variety,...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftNet Solutions will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. SoftNet Solutions specializes in Enterprise Solutions for Hadoop and Big Data. It offers customers the most open, robust, and value-conscious portfolio of solutions, services, and tools for the shortest route to success with Big Data. The unique differentiator is the ability to architect and ...
The Internet of Things will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform and how we integrate our thinking to solve complicated problems. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, will demonstrate how to move beyond today's coding paradigm ...
DevOps is being widely accepted (if not fully adopted) as essential in enterprise IT. But as Enterprise DevOps gains maturity, expands scope, and increases velocity, the need for data-driven decisions across teams becomes more acute. DevOps teams in any modern business must wrangle the ‘digital exhaust’ from the delivery toolchain, "pervasive" and "cognitive" computing, APIs and services, mobile devices and applications, the Internet of Things, and now even blockchain. In this power panel at @...
Qosmos, the market leader for IP traffic classification and network intelligence technology, has announced that it will launch the Launch L7 Viewer at CloudExpo | @ThingsExpo Silicon Valley, being held November 1 – 3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. The L7 Viewer is a traffic analysis tool that provides complete visibility of all network traffic that crosses a virtualized infrastructure, up to Layer 7. It facilitates and accelerates common IT tasks such as VM migra...
A completely new computing platform is on the horizon. They’re called Microservers by some, ARM Servers by others, and sometimes even ARM-based Servers. No matter what you call them, Microservers will have a huge impact on the data center and on server computing in general. Although few people are familiar with Microservers today, their impact will be felt very soon. This is a new category of computing platform that is available today and is predicted to have triple-digit growth rates for some ...
As the world moves toward more DevOps and Microservices, application deployment to the cloud ought to become a lot simpler. The Microservices architecture, which is the basis of many new age distributed systems such as OpenStack, NetFlix and so on, is at the heart of Cloud Foundry - a complete developer-oriented Platform as a Service (PaaS) that is IaaS agnostic and supports vCloud, OpenStack and AWS. Serverless computing is revolutionizing computing. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Raghav...
So you think you are a DevOps warrior, huh? Put your money (not really, it’s free) where your metrics are and prove it by taking The Ultimate DevOps Geek Quiz Challenge, sponsored by DevOps Summit. Battle through the set of tough questions created by industry thought leaders to earn your bragging rights and win some cool prizes.
In past @ThingsExpo presentations, Joseph di Paolantonio has explored how various Internet of Things (IoT) and data management and analytics (DMA) solution spaces will come together as sensor analytics ecosystems. This year, in his session at @ThingsExpo, Joseph di Paolantonio from DataArchon, will be adding the numerous Transportation areas, from autonomous vehicles to “Uber for containers.” While IoT data in any one area of Transportation will have a huge impact in that area, combining sensor...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Isomorphic Software will exhibit at DevOps Summit at 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Isomorphic Software provides the SmartClient HTML5/AJAX platform, the most advanced technology for building rich, cutting-edge enterprise web applications for desktop and mobile. SmartClient combines the productivity and performance of traditional desktop software with the simp...
SYS-CON Media announced today that @WebRTCSummit Blog, the largest WebRTC resource in the world, has been launched. @WebRTCSummit Blog offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. @WebRTCSummit Blog can be bookmarked ▸ Here @WebRTCSummit conference site can be bookmarked ▸ Here
Most people haven’t heard the word, “gamification,” even though they probably, and perhaps unwittingly, participate in it every day. Gamification is “the process of adding games or game-like elements to something (as a task) so as to encourage participation.” Further, gamification is about bringing game mechanics – rules, constructs, processes, and methods – into the real world in an effort to engage people. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Robert Endo, owner and engagement manager of Intrepid D...