|By Gilad Parann-Nissany||
|October 16, 2014 08:00 AM EDT||
By Lohit Mehta
Every organization should follow a proactive rather than a reactive approach to protect against threats, risks, and vulnerabilities to which if their IT infrastructure is exposed can lead to data loss, regulatory penalties, lawsuits, and damaged reputation. Moving on the same lines, to reduce credit card fraud via its exposure, a standard known as Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) was formed.
Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council (PCI SSC) had developed a standard known as PCI Data Security Standard (PCI DSS), which comprises 12 core security areas to protect credit card holder data from theft, misuse, etc. These requirements apply to all entities involved in payment card processing, including merchants, processors, and 3rd party service providers that store, process and transmit cardholder data. PCI DSS originally began as five different programs:
- Visa’s Cardholder Information Security Program
- MasterCard’s Site Data Protection
- American Express’ Data Security Operating Policy
- Discover’s Information Security and Compliance
- JCB’s Data Security Program
The motive of the above listed companies was to protect the card holder by providing some guidelines to merchants or any other entity which is involved in storing, processing and transmitting cardholder data. From the above listed companies, a PCI Security Standards Council (SSC) was formed, and the first version of PCI DSS 1.0 was released in December 2004. Because of rapid changes in technology, new mode of payments, attack vectors, regulatory laws, etc., this version got back to back updates from 1.1 to 1.2. PCI subsequent versions 2.0 and 3.0 were released in October 2010 and November 2013 respectively.
One major theme that forms the basis of PCI-DSS 3.0, apart from some notable ones like education and awareness around payment security, increased flexibility to handle risks, and security as a shared responsibility, is to make PCI-DSS a Business As Usual (BAU) practice. The purpose of this document is to outlay the key drivers that led to PCI-DSS 3.0. Below are the key drivers and challenges that lead to PCI-DSS 3.0.
Lack of education and awareness around payment security
Due to lack of education and awareness around payment security, employees usually leave security holes in their developed applications by not following best security practices to code, picking up weak passwords, and sharing company information on public and social platforms. PCI-DSS 3.0 has incorporated requirements such as 8.4 that focus on personnel trainings, guidance around payment security, guidance for selecting and protecting authentication credentials, instructions to change passwords in case of any suspicion detected, etc.
The PCI-DSS council has gone a step ahead and also focuses on major sales points where card data is processed ie. POS terminal and brings these terminals under scope, as attacks on POS devices like cloning, addition of card skimmers, etc. are on a high. Requirement 9.9 which is to “Protect devices that capture card data via direct physical interaction with the card from tampering and substitution” is added to address the POS threat challenge. This requirement will now make organizations maintain an up-to date list of devices deployed at various sites. This list will contain information about POS devices such as:
- Unique serial number of the device
- Make and model of device
- Location details at which it is deployed.
This requirement also focuses on providing training for end-personnel to be aware about the attempted tampering or replacement of authentic POS devices. Organizations need to conduct periodic reviews of devices to check for any evidence of substitution or tampering.
Third party security challenges
As per the security investigation report, 63 percent of security deficiencies that can result in breach or loss of cardholder data falls in the 3rd party IT landscape, whose business function is to process, transmit and store cardholder data received either from merchant or service providers. To handle crises whenever there is a breach resulting in cardholder data loss and no one to take ownership of that, PCI has added requirements 12.8, 12.9 to made it clear that both the engaging parties need to seal the deal with a written agreement, which should state a clear responsibility matrix. This requirement also requires the organization to do a proper due-diligence of the IT landscape, process, services offered, and security controls in place before entering into a formal agreement.
Along with the above stated requirement, PCI has also stated an additional requirement for service providers with requirement number 8.5.1 to maintain unique credentials for each customer when accessing their premises remotely for services like support of POS systems. This requirement will prevent the compromise of multiple customers’ account profiles in case the service provider used the same credentials for all the service providers and that in turn is compromised. Also service providers must set up strong credentials to access customer premises and should adopt best practice policies like a password change policy, etc.
The earlier PCI-DSS 2.0 standard specifies that there should be an antivirus solution deployed to protect the CDE environment from viruses, malware, etc. and that it should be completely updated with the latest patches and signatures, but the requirement did not specify about the access control settings over the AV software, such as access control over the AV manager, meaning who can only disable the AV solution and who can view its logs and edit the configuration changes. However in PCI-DSS 3.0, requirement 5.3 now requires organizations to deploy tighter policy based controls around antivirus solution that will require authorization to access and alter the configuration settings of the AV solution.
To keep controls deployment and maintenance costs in check, merchants generally come up with a classification of important endpoints that will be covered under security controls deployment like antivirus. Though asset classifications is a good practice, merchants do not generally update these lists with the ever-changing threat landscape. Keeping this in check, PCI-DSS has added a new requirement 5.1.2 which requires merchants to identify and evaluate evolving threats against systems which are not commonly affected by malicious software like mainframes, so as to develop a tighter antivirus security around all the systems in the CDE environment. Merchants can take guidance from vendors to understand the changing threat landscape and to evaluate whether their unprotected systems come under newly discovered vulnerabilities.
One of the key drivers and significant changes in PCI-DSS 3.0 is addition of the requirement for merchants to conduct penetration testing on their cardholder environment. SSC has laid emphasis on the point that merchants/service providers must adopt an industry wide accepted penetration testing like NIST SP 800-15. PCI requirements also need to conduct penetration tests not only at the application level but also at the network level against devices that are deployed at the perimeter (say for segregation) or deployed inside CDE environment. PCI requirement 13.4 would require providers to conduct:
- Annual penetration tests on the external network and when there is any significant change in infrastructure or applications deployed in CDE environment.
- Annual penetration tests on the internal network and when there is any significant change in infrastructure or applications deployed in CDE environment.
- Annual penetration tests on the boundary defense of CDE environment or around the segmentation controls that are used to isolate the CDE environment to check their effectiveness.
- Adopt the cyclic process of Test (Conduct Penetration testing (PT)) > Remediate (Fix Vulnerabilities) > Re-Test (Conduct PT again) until all the vulnerabilities found are fixed.
- Requires merchants/service providers to retain the Penetration testing results and remediation activities as per the adopted industry driven approach.
PCI has made it mandatory for retailers to maintain an inventory list of all the in-scope devices for CDE environment. With addition of requirement 2.4 which states, “Maintain an inventory of systems components that in scope of PCI DSS”, PCI made sure that retailers keep updating their inventory list with the already in action system components or to any newly added one. To avoid any confusion, PCI has also mentioned in some drilled down requirements what all needs to be put in the inventory list, such as:
- Requirement no 11.1.1 states that “maintain an inventory of authorized wireless access points including a documented business justification ” will require retailers to maintain an inventory list for all access points with a proper business justification.
- Requirement no 9.7.1 states that to “Properly maintain inventory logs of all media and conduct media inventories at least annually” will require retailers to maintain an inventory list of all the media so that stolen or missing media should not go unnoticed.
- Requirement no 12.3.4 requires retailers to maintain an inventory of all physical devices with proper labeling to mark any unapproved installations.
However, the above stated requirement to maintain an inventory list will be very difficult for organizations to maintain until they fully practice the requirement no 1.1.3 which requires organizations to maintain an updated data flow diagram (DFD) to showcase all the controls that are in CDE environment. With an updated DFD, organizations will be able to classify what is in-scope and out of scope for their CDE environment.
Business as Usual (BaU)
One of the major themes of PCI-DSS 3.0 is to make it as a Business as Usual (BAU) Practice rather than compliance. As PCI-DSS covers a majority of mid-sized business that either do not have a large IT department or they have very few information security groups which can work to keep their business PCI-DSS-ready for audits and to incorporate any last minute hiccups. Making PCI-DSS as a BAU will require organizations to keep their PCI-DSS checklist updated regularly with any change in their CDE environment. Merchants should keep a check and document all the changes done in their cardholder data environment (CDE). These includes:
- Regular monitoring of security controls like firewall, AV solutions, access controls, IDS/IPS, Security Incident and Event Management (SIEM), etc. in CDE environment to ensure that they are correct, updated and their functioning is secure.
- Reviewing the security posture of the CDE environment with addition of new systems and devices, changes in configurations of security controls, organizational structure changes, etc.
- Reviewing latest best practices, support issued by vendors for the security devices that are placed in CDE environment to make sure that the cardholder data is secured from evolving threats.
PCI-DSS 3.0 has incorporated some good new requirements as per the changing threat landscape, included the end user to understand about payment security, and clarified some statements for proper understanding of merchants and 3rd party service providers. Some of the changed requirements that are incorporated in PCI DSS 3.0 are termed as best practice for some time now, after which they will become mandatory for every organization to implement. PCI DSS 3.0 will surely make merchants, service providers or any entity that is processing, storing and transmitting cardholder data and is under PCI scope to revisit and enhance their existing strategy for protecting cardholder information.
Lohit Mehta is a Security Researcher for the InfoSec Institute. He has experience working with RFPs/RFIs; Security HLD and LLD design; Network Security elements like Firewall, IDS/IPS, DLP, Reverse proxy, WAF; in Public Key Infrastructure(PKI); in Application Security testing for OWASP Top 10; in Compliance’s like PCI-DSS 2.0,3.0 , ISO 27k1, HIPPA; with Cloud Service Provider’s such as AWS; in Security Incident and Event Management(SIEM) with tools like Splunk; in Vulnerability Testing.
MongoDB Atlas leverages VPC peering for AWS, a service that allows multiple VPC networks to interact. This includes VPCs that belong to other AWS account holders. By performing cross account VPC peering, users ensure networks that host and communicate their data are secure. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Jay Gordon, a Developer Advocate at MongoDB, will explain how to properly architect your VPC using existing AWS tools and then peer with your MongoDB Atlas cluster. He'll discuss the secur...
Mar. 28, 2017 04:45 PM EDT Reads: 357
Deep learning has been very successful in social sciences and specially areas where there is a lot of data. Trading is another field that can be viewed as social science with a lot of data. With the advent of Deep Learning and Big Data technologies for efficient computation, we are finally able to use the same methods in investment management as we would in face recognition or in making chat-bots. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Gaurav Chakravorty, co-founder and Head of Strategy Development ...
Mar. 28, 2017 03:45 PM EDT Reads: 3,755
SYS-CON Events announced today that Linux Academy, the foremost online Linux and cloud training platform and community, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Linux Academy was founded on the belief that providing high-quality, in-depth training should be available at an affordable price. Industry leaders in quality training, provided services, and student certification passes, its goal is to c...
Mar. 28, 2017 03:45 PM EDT Reads: 4,088
DevOps is often described as a combination of technology and culture. Without both, DevOps isn't complete. However, applying the culture to outdated technology is a recipe for disaster; as response times grow and connections between teams are delayed by technology, the culture will die. A Nutanix Enterprise Cloud has many benefits that provide the needed base for a true DevOps paradigm. In his Day 3 Keynote at 20th Cloud Expo, Chris Brown, a Solutions Marketing Manager at Nutanix, will explore t...
Mar. 28, 2017 03:45 PM EDT Reads: 3,066
[session] Offshore Development: How Not to Screw It Up | @CloudExpo @MobiDev_ #Cloud #DigitalTransformation
In his session at Cloud Expo, Alan Winters, an entertainment executive/TV producer turned serial entrepreneur, will present a success story of an entrepreneur who has both suffered through and benefited from offshore development across multiple businesses: The smart choice, or how to select the right offshore development partner Warning signs, or how to minimize chances of making the wrong choice Collaboration, or how to establish the most effective work processes Budget control, or how to m...
Mar. 28, 2017 03:45 PM EDT Reads: 320
"delaPlex is a software development company. We do team-based outsourcing development," explained Mark Rivers, COO and Co-founder of delaPlex Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Mar. 28, 2017 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 9,600
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
Mar. 28, 2017 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,078
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named “Platinum Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CA Technologies helps customers succeed in a future where every business – from apparel to energy – is being rewritten by software. From ...
Mar. 28, 2017 02:15 PM EDT Reads: 2,169
SYS-CON Events announced today that Technologic Systems Inc., an embedded systems solutions company, will exhibit at SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Technologic Systems is an embedded systems company with headquarters in Fountain Hills, Arizona. They have been in business for 32 years, helping more than 8,000 OEM customers and building over a hundred COTS products that have never been discontinued. Technologic Systems’ pr...
Mar. 28, 2017 02:15 PM EDT Reads: 3,639
In his keynote at @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Director of IoT Engineering at Citrix and co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, focused on building an IoT platform and company. He provided a behind-the-scenes look at Octoblu’s platform, business, and pivots along the way (including the Citrix acquisition of Octoblu).
Mar. 28, 2017 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 14,240
SYS-CON Events announced today that Auditwerx will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Auditwerx specializes in SOC 1, SOC 2, and SOC 3 attestation services throughout the U.S. and Canada. As a division of Carr, Riggs & Ingram (CRI), one of the top 20 largest CPA firms nationally, you can expect the resources, skills, and experience of a much larger firm combined with the accessibility and atten...
Mar. 28, 2017 01:31 PM EDT Reads: 267
What if you could build a web application that could support true web-scale traffic without having to ever provision or manage a single server? Sounds magical, and it is! In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Chris Munns, Senior Developer Advocate for Serverless Applications at Amazon Web Services, will show how to build a serverless website that scales automatically using services like AWS Lambda, Amazon API Gateway, and Amazon S3. We will review several frameworks that can help you build serverle...
Mar. 28, 2017 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 2,189
SYS-CON Events announced today that Loom Systems will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Founded in 2015, Loom Systems delivers an advanced AI solution to predict and prevent problems in the digital business. Loom stands alone in the industry as an AI analysis platform requiring no prior math knowledge from operators, leveraging the existing staff to succeed in the digital era. With offices in S...
Mar. 28, 2017 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,610
SYS-CON Events announced today that HTBase will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. HTBase (Gartner 2016 Cool Vendor) delivers a Composable IT infrastructure solution architected for agility and increased efficiency. It turns compute, storage, and fabric into fluid pools of resources that are easily composed and re-composed to meet each application’s needs. With HTBase, companies can quickly prov...
Mar. 28, 2017 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 3,124
SYS-CON Events announced today that T-Mobile will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. As America's Un-carrier, T-Mobile US, Inc., is redefining the way consumers and businesses buy wireless services through leading product and service innovation. The Company's advanced nationwide 4G LTE network delivers outstanding wireless experiences to 67.4 million customers who are unwilling to compromise on ...
Mar. 28, 2017 11:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,475
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloud Academy will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Cloud Academy is the industry’s most innovative, vendor-neutral cloud technology training platform. Cloud Academy provides continuous learning solutions for individuals and enterprise teams for Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform, and the most popular cloud computing technologies. Ge...
Mar. 28, 2017 11:30 AM EDT Reads: 4,687
SYS-CON Events announced today that CrowdReviews.com has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6–8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. CrowdReviews.com is a transparent online platform for determining which products and services are the best based on the opinion of the crowd. The crowd consists of Internet users that have experienced products and services first-hand and have an interest in letting other potential buyers...
Mar. 28, 2017 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 3,713
[session] Composable Infrastructure and Multi-Cloud By @HTBase | @CloudExpo #API #Cloud #Storage #DataCenter
Imagine having the ability to leverage all of your current technology and to be able to compose it into one resource pool. Now imagine, as your business grows, not having to deploy a complete new appliance to scale your infrastructure. Also imagine a true multi-cloud capability that allows live migration without any modification between cloud environments regardless of whether that cloud is your private cloud or your public AWS, Azure or Google instance. Now think of a world that is not locked i...
Mar. 28, 2017 10:54 AM EDT Reads: 329
SYS-CON Events announced today that Infranics will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Since 2000, Infranics has developed SysMaster Suite, which is required for the stable and efficient management of ICT infrastructure. The ICT management solution developed and provided by Infranics continues to add intelligence to the ICT infrastructure through the IMC (Infra Management Cycle) based on mathemat...
Mar. 28, 2017 10:45 AM EDT Reads: 3,300
SYS-CON Events announced today that Juniper Networks (NYSE: JNPR), an industry leader in automated, scalable and secure networks, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Juniper Networks challenges the status quo with products, solutions and services that transform the economics of networking. The company co-innovates with customers and partners to deliver automated, scalable and secure network...
Mar. 28, 2017 10:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,556