|By Dan Clark||
|April 28, 2003 12:00 AM EDT||
The class diagram is an excellent aid to model the attributes, operations, and associations of the classes in your applications. This article, the second in a series of articles that introduce the reader to the concepts of object-oriented design and the Unified Modeling Language, focuses on UML class diagrams. It reviews UML class diagramming notation and the use of Visio to construct a class diagram.
The Need for Modeling Classes
Class structures are fundamental to any object-oriented programming language. The class structure is a template for the objects that will implement the functionality of your applications. As a .NET developer, you need to become increasingly familiar with the classes available in the .NET Framework. As you gain experience developing .NET applications you will discover the need to develop your own class libraries. Good design of object-oriented applications dictates a clear separation of functionality between the user interface, business logic, and data access logic. Well-designed applications achieve this separation of functionality through the development of class libraries that encapsulate internal processing. By developing class libraries, your applications become more manageable, scalable, and extendable.
An all-too-common problem in many object-oriented applications is a lack of preplanning. Class libraries evolve haphazardly. As a result, the distinction of roles and responsibilities among the various classes in the library becomes muddled and convoluted. These class libraries are difficult to manage, revise, and employ. This is especially problematic when large teams of developers build an application. Employing a tool to model your class libraries is imperative to ensure that the application remains consistent, manageable, and clearly defined. A UML class diagram is an excellent tool for modeling the structure of your class libraries.
Modeling Class Structure Using UML
In a UML class diagram, a rectangle divided into three parts represents the class. The top section contains the name of the class, the middle section contains the attributes of the class, and the lower section contains the operations performed by the class. Operations may take the form of methods, constructors, destructors, properties, or events. Figure 1 illustrates a UML class diagram representing a loan class. This class is part of a library loan application that tracks loan, member, and inventory information for a small library.
Examining the class diagram reveals that along with the name of the attribute, it defines the attribute's accessibility. A minus sign (-) in front of the attribute name indicates it is private. A plus sign (+) indicates it is public, and a pound sign (#) indicates it is protected. A private element is only accessible from within the class. A public element is accessible from any code in the same project or any project with a reference to the project containing the class. A protected element is accessible from within the class and any class derived from the class.
Although the UML specifications do not define specific data types, when developing classes for use in .NET assemblies you can strongly type the attributes using the supported types of your implementation language. Visio allows the choice of either VB, C#, C++, or IDL supported data types. Data types can also be complex data types defined by your class library or the .NET class library. For example, a catalog class may have an item attribute that is of type System.Data.DataRow. Another possible scenario would be to create a catalog class as a collection class whose item attribute is an Item class type.
The lower section of the UML class shape defines the operations of the class. Typically, the class diagram will define the name of the operation, its accessibility, any parameters passed in to the operation, and any return value passed back when the operation executes. The loan class represented in Figure 1 contains two constructors (Sub New), a function (CalculateDueDate), an event procedure (OverDueNotice), and a property (LoanID). Unfortunately, the UML specifications do not define a way to identify the various operation types in the diagram. You can, however, add your own notation to indicate the various types depending on the modeling tool you use. Figure 2 shows the loan class shape with custom stereotypes added to identify the various operations defined in the diagram.
Modeling Class Associations
When a class refers to or uses another class, the classes form an association. For example, in the library loan application we have identified the need to construct a Loan class and a Book class. The responsibility of the Loan class is to maintain information about a book out on loan. This includes the member who has the book, the book, and the due date. The responsibility of the Book class is to maintain relevant information about the book. This includes ISBN, title, author, and publisher. Since the Loan class maintains a reference to the Book class, the book class is a collaborator of the Loan class. A line connecting the two classes represents this association in the class diagram. The association line often includes a label to describe the association.
Association lines can also indicate the direction of the association. In the previous case, the Loan class maintains a reference to the Book class, but the book class does not maintain a reference to the Loan class. To depict a one-way association, you add an arrow to the association line. The class diagram shown in Figure 3 documents the association between the loan class and the book class.
Sometimes a single instance of one class associates with multiple instances of another class. For example, a member may have multiple books out on loan. In this case, a single instance of a member class is associated with multiple instances of the Loan class. Multiplicity is included in the class diagram by placing the appropriate symbol on the association line. The class diagram in Figure 4 indicates that an instance of the Member class may be associated with multiple instances of the Loan class.
Using Visio to Construct a Class Diagram
Now that you're familiar with some of the notations used to construct a class diagram, you are ready to investigate the use of Visio to create class diagrams. If you do not have Visio installed, you can still benefit from following along and completing the diagram with paper and pencil.
1. Start up Visio. From the File menu choose New -> Software -> UML Model Diagram.
2. Locate the Shapes window along the left side of the screen. This window includes a tab for the common UML diagrams. Select the UML Static Structure tab (see Figure 5).
3. From the Shapes window click and drag the Class shape onto the design surface. Right-click the Class shape on the design surface and choose Properties. A UML Class Properties window becomes visible (see Figure 6). Change the name to "Book" and add the description "Responsible for maintaining book information" in the Documentation text box.
4. Select Attributes on the Categories list box in the left side of the window. Click on the New button on the right side of the window to add a new attribute to the class. Click on the Properties button to display the UML Attribute Properties window. Change the name of the attribute to "mISBN". Change the type to "VB::Char" and verify that the visibility is "private". Click the OK button to return to the UML Class Properties window.
5. Select Operations in the Categories list box on the left side of the window. Click on the New button on the right side of the window to add a new operation to the class. Click on the Properties button to display the UML Operation Properties window. Change the name of the operation to "ISBN". Change the return type to "VB::Char" and verify that the visibility is "public". Select "Code Generation Options" in the Categories list box on the left side of the window. Change the operation kind to "Property" and check the "Create Get Method" and "Create Set Method" check boxes to indicate it is a readable/writable property. Click the OK button to return to the UML Class Properties window.
6. Select Operations in the Categories list box on the left side of the window. Click on the New button on the left side of the window to add a new operation to the class. Click on the Properties button to display the UML Operation Properties window. Change the name of the operation to "CheckAvailability". Change the return type to "VB::Boolean" and verify that the visibility is "public". Select "Parameters" in the Categories list box on the left side of the window. Click on the New button on the right side of the window to add a new parameter to the operation. Click on the Properties button to display the UML Parameter Properties window. Change the name of the parameter to "ReservationDate" and the type to "VB::Date". Click the OK button to return to the UML Operation Properties window. Click the OK button to return to the UML Class Properties window. Click OK to close the UML Class Properties window. The Book class diagram should look similar to the one shown in Figure 7.
7. In order to demonstrate the creation of class associations, add a Member class and a Loan class to the class diagram. If you want some practice, add some attributes and operations to these classes.
8. From the Shapes window, click and drag the Binary Association shape onto the design surface. Attach end 1 of the Binary Association to the Member class and end 2 to the Loan class. The Binary Association line will turn red if it is not attached properly. Right-click the Binary Association shape on the design surface and choose Properties. The UML Association Properties window will display. Change the name of the association to "Takes Out". Change the Name Reading Direction to "forward". Change End 1's multiplicity to 1 and check the IsNavigable check box. When you are finished, click OK to close the window.
9. Right-click the "Takes Out" Binary Association shape on the design surface and choose Shape Display Options. The UML Shape Display Options window displays. Under the General section, click the Name check box. Under the Suppress section, click on the First end and Second end check boxes. When finished, click OK.
10. Figure 8 shows the completed diagram, including an association between the Loan class and the Book class. For additional practice, add this association to your diagram.
This article has introduced you to using the Unified Modeling Language to model the class structure of your application. The class diagram is a great aid for modeling the attributes and operations of the classes that make up your application. The class diagram also shows how the various classes in your application associate with each other. A CASE tool such as Visio, although not necessary, is beneficial in the creation of the class diagram.
A future article will continue the study of UML and class associations, focusing on modeling class inheritance hierarchies. In addition, you will be introduced to modeling interfaces, meta classes, and utility classes, which are all commonly used in class library applications. Finally, you will experience using Visio to generate a Visual Studio .NET class library from the UML model.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Interoute, owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Interoute is the owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform which encompasses 12 data centers, 14 virtual data centers and 31 colocation centers, with connections to 195 add...
Mar. 24, 2017 11:45 PM EDT Reads: 581
Historically, some banking activities such as trading have been relying heavily on analytics and cutting edge algorithmic tools. The coming of age of powerful data analytics solutions combined with the development of intelligent algorithms have created new opportunities for financial institutions. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Sebastien Meunier, Head of Digital for North America at Chappuis Halder & Co., will discuss how these tools can be leveraged to develop a lasting competitive advanta...
Mar. 24, 2017 11:15 PM EDT Reads: 2,478
TechTarget storage websites are the best online information resource for news, tips and expert advice for the storage, backup and disaster recovery markets. By creating abundant, high-quality editorial content across more than 140 highly targeted technology-specific websites, TechTarget attracts and nurtures communities of technology buyers researching their companies' information technology needs. By understanding these buyers' content consumption behaviors, TechTarget creates the purchase inte...
Mar. 24, 2017 10:15 PM EDT Reads: 4,130
DevOps is often described as a combination of technology and culture. Without both, DevOps isn't complete. However, applying the culture to outdated technology is a recipe for disaster; as response times grow and connections between teams are delayed by technology, the culture will die. A Nutanix Enterprise Cloud has many benefits that provide the needed base for a true DevOps paradigm.
Mar. 24, 2017 10:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,508
My team embarked on building a data lake for our sales and marketing data to better understand customer journeys. This required building a hybrid data pipeline to connect our cloud CRM with the new Hadoop Data Lake. One challenge is that IT was not in a position to provide support until we proved value and marketing did not have the experience, so we embarked on the journey ourselves within the product marketing team for our line of business within Progress. In his session at @BigDataExpo, Sum...
Mar. 24, 2017 06:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,610
Your homes and cars can be automated and self-serviced. Why can't your storage? From simply asking questions to analyze and troubleshoot your infrastructure, to provisioning storage with snapshots, recovery and replication, your wildest sci-fi dream has come true. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 20th Cloud Expo, Dan Florea, Director of Product Management at Tintri, will provide a ChatOps demo where you can talk to your storage and manage it from anywhere, through Slack and similar services ...
Mar. 24, 2017 06:30 PM EDT Reads: 4,109
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
Mar. 24, 2017 05:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,295
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ocean9will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Ocean9 provides cloud services for Backup, Disaster Recovery (DRaaS) and instant Innovation, and redefines enterprise infrastructure with its cloud native subscription offerings for mission critical SAP workloads.
Mar. 24, 2017 04:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,769
Have you ever noticed how some IT people seem to lead successful, rewarding, and satisfying lives and careers, while others struggle? IT author and speaker Don Crawley uncovered the five principles that successful IT people use to build satisfying lives and careers and he shares them in this fast-paced, thought-provoking webinar. You'll learn the importance of striking a balance with technical skills and people skills, challenge your pre-existing ideas about IT customer service, and gain new in...
Mar. 24, 2017 04:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,262
SYS-CON Events announced today that Juniper Networks (NYSE: JNPR), an industry leader in automated, scalable and secure networks, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Juniper Networks challenges the status quo with products, solutions and services that transform the economics of networking. The company co-innovates with customers and partners to deliver automated, scalable and secure network...
Mar. 24, 2017 04:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,035
Interoute has announced the integration of its Global Cloud Infrastructure platform with Rancher Labs’ container management platform, Rancher. This approach enables enterprises to accelerate their digital transformation and infrastructure investments. Matthew Finnie, Interoute CTO commented “Enterprises developing and building apps in the cloud and those on a path to Digital Transformation need Digital ICT Infrastructure that allows them to build, test and deploy faster than ever before. The int...
Mar. 24, 2017 04:30 PM EDT Reads: 523
VeriStor Systems has announced that CRN has named VeriStor to its 2017 Managed Service Provider (MSP) 500 list in the Elite 150 category. This annual list recognizes North American solution providers with cutting-edge approaches to delivering managed services. Their offerings help companies navigate the complex and ever-changing landscape of IT, improve operational efficiencies, and maximize their return on IT investments. In today’s fast-paced business environments, MSPs play an important role...
Mar. 24, 2017 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,110
DevOps is often described as a combination of technology and culture. Without both, DevOps isn't complete. However, applying the culture to outdated technology is a recipe for disaster; as response times grow and connections between teams are delayed by technology, the culture will die. A Nutanix Enterprise Cloud has many benefits that provide the needed base for a true DevOps paradigm. In his Day 3 Keynote at 20th Cloud Expo, Chris Brown, a Solutions Marketing Manager at Nutanix, will explore t...
Mar. 24, 2017 02:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,547
What if you could build a web application that could support true web-scale traffic without having to ever provision or manage a single server? Sounds magical, and it is! In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Chris Munns, Senior Developer Advocate for Serverless Applications at Amazon Web Services, will show how to build a serverless website that scales automatically using services like AWS Lambda, Amazon API Gateway, and Amazon S3. We will review several frameworks that can help you build serverle...
Mar. 24, 2017 01:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,545
SYS-CON Events announced today that Linux Academy, the foremost online Linux and cloud training platform and community, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Linux Academy was founded on the belief that providing high-quality, in-depth training should be available at an affordable price. Industry leaders in quality training, provided services, and student certification passes, its goal is to c...
Mar. 24, 2017 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 3,846
SYS-CON Events announced today that Telecom Reseller has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6–8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Telecom Reseller reports on Unified Communications, UCaaS, BPaaS for enterprise and SMBs. They report extensively on both customer premises based solutions such as IP-PBX as well as cloud based and hosted platforms.
Mar. 24, 2017 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,863
FinTech is the sum of financial and technology, and it’s one of the fastest growing tech industries. Total global investments in FinTech almost reached $50 billion last year, but there is still a great deal of confusion over what it is and what it means – especially as it applies to retirement. Building financial startups is not simple, but with the right team, technology and an innovative approach it can be an extremely interesting domain to disrupt. FinTech heralds a financial revolution that...
Mar. 24, 2017 12:30 PM EDT Reads: 3,005
Keeping pace with advancements in software delivery processes and tooling is taxing even for the most proficient organizations. Point tools, platforms, open source and the increasing adoption of private and public cloud services requires strong engineering rigor - all in the face of developer demands to use the tools of choice. As Agile has settled in as a mainstream practice, now DevOps has emerged as the next wave to improve software delivery speed and output. To make DevOps work, organization...
Mar. 24, 2017 12:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,399
SYS-CON Events announced today that Loom Systems will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Founded in 2015, Loom Systems delivers an advanced AI solution to predict and prevent problems in the digital business. Loom stands alone in the industry as an AI analysis platform requiring no prior math knowledge from operators, leveraging the existing staff to succeed in the digital era. With offices in S...
Mar. 24, 2017 12:15 PM EDT Reads: 960
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloudistics, an on-premises cloud computing company, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Cloudistics delivers a complete public cloud experience with composable on-premises infrastructures to medium and large enterprises. Its software-defined technology natively converges network, storage, compute, virtualization, and management into a ...
Mar. 24, 2017 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,642