|By Jonathan Gershater||
|August 24, 2012 11:00 AM EDT||
Eucalyptus is an open source Infrastructure as a Service cloud offering. What is unique about Eucalyptus is that it is compatible with Amazon AWS APIs. This means that you can:
- Use Eucalyptus commands to manage Amazon or Eucalyptus instances.
- Freely move instances between a Eucalyptus private cloud and the Amazon Public cloud to create a hybrid cloud.
Eucalyptus leverages operating system virtualization, such as KVM or XEN, to achieve isolation between applications and stacks. Operating system virtualization dedicates CPU and RAM to systems and applications such that they don't interfere with each other. In cloud parlance, this is called isolation and is essential to achieve multi-tenancy. (For a refresher on basic cloud terminology, see here; for a refresher on Infrastructure as a Service, see here).
Cloud computing layers on top of operating system virtualization and when combined with dynamic allocation of IP addresses, storage and firewall rules creates a service that end users interact with to run instances of images.
The following is an explanation of terminology and concepts used by Eucalyptus.
An image is a fixed collection of software modules, system software, application software and configuration information that is started from a known baseline (immutable/fixed). An example of an image is a Linux virtual machine configured with Apache, MySQL, Perl and PHP. When bundled and uploaded to the Eucalyptus cloud, this will become known as an "EMI" Eucalyptus Machine Image. An EKI is an Eucalyptus Kernel Image which contains kernel modules necessary for functioning of the image. An ERI is a Eucalyptus RAM Image.
When an image is put to use it is called an instance. The configuration is dynamically executed at runtime and the cloud controller decides where the image will run, storage and networking is attached to meet resource needs. This is executed under the control of the credentials (digital certificates) of the user who is requesting an instance of the image.
Eucalyptus instances can have public and private IPs. An IP address is assigned to an instance when the instance is created from an image. For instances that require a persistent IP address, such as web-server, Eucalyptus supplies Elastic IP addresses. These are pre-allocated by the Eucalyptus cloud to an instance. An Elastic IP persists whether the instance is running or not. In other words if you stop an instance and restart it hours, days or even weeks later, the instance will bind to the same Elastic IP address that was assigned to it. This is essential for consistent DNS resolution.
TCP/IP stack layer 3 security is achieved using security groups, which share a common set of firewall rules. This is a mechanism to firewall off an instance using IP address and port block/allow functionality.
At TCP/IP layer 2 instances are isolated. If this were not present, a root user could manipulate the networking of instances and gain access to neighboring instances violating the basic cloud tenet of instance isolation and separation.
There are three networking modes:
- Managed mode - Eucalyptus manages a local network of instances, including security groups and elastic IPs. Eucalyptus maintains a DHCP server and provides private non-routable IPs to instances. An instance is created in a security group and gets an IP from the range in that group. There is also a pool of public (elastic) IPs that users can bind to an instance at boot-time or dynamically at runtime. VLANs are used to network instances in different security groups. If there is no VLAN present, isolation can be achieved using security groups in different subnets.
- System mode - Essentially the physical LAN that is attached to Eucalyptus manages the network of the Eucalyptus cloud. Eucalyptus assigns a MAC address and attaches the instance's network interface to the physical Ethernet LAN through the NodeController's bridge. System mode requires a DHCP server on the physical LAN that is reachable by instances. System mode does not offer elastic IPs, security groups or VM isolation.
- Static mode - In static mode Eucalyptus maintains a DHCP server and assigns IP addresses to instances. Static mode does not offer elastic IPs, security groups or VM isolation.
A user of Eucalyptus is called an identity. Identities can be grouped together for access control purposes. Users exist within accounts. An account is a namespace that contains users/identities, key pairs and security groups. An account is used to account for resource usage.
The CLC is a Cloud controller similar to Amazon EC2, It is the entry point into cloud for all users: administrators, developers, project managers and end users. The CLC queries other components for resources and makes scheduling decisions and requests to Cluster Controllers. The CLC exposing and manages underlying resources (servers, networks, storage). Users access the CLC using AWS compatible command line tools and a web-based dashboard.
Walrus, similar to Amazon's S3, is a bucket based persistent data storage. Users create, delete and list buckets; put and remove objects from buckets; get and set access control policies. Walrus is accessible from the administrative interface or from an instance inside cloud.
The CC is the Cluster Controller. The CC gathers information about node controllers and schedules an instance to execute on a specific NodeController.
The NC is the the Node Controller. The Node Controller manages instances. The NC controls instance activities such as execution, inspection and termination. The NC fetches and maintains a cache of instance images. The NC also manages virtual network endpoints.
The SC is the storage controller and is similar to Amazon's EBS (Elastic Block Store). The storage controller manages block accessed network storage. The SC interfaces with SCSI, SAN, NFS. The SC exports storage volumes that can be attached to an instance or mounted as a raw-block device. SC storage volumes persist even when an instance stops running and thus stores persistent data. SC storage cannot be shared between instances and only exists in the same Availability Zone in which the instance is running. Users can create snapshots from SC volumes which can stored in Walrus and thus be made available across Availability Zones.
SOA Software has changed its name to Akana. With roots in Web Services and SOA Governance, Akana has established itself as a leader in API Management and is expanding into cloud integration as an alternative to the traditional heavyweight enterprise service bus (ESB). The company recently announced that it achieved more than 90% year-over-year growth. As Akana, the company now addresses the evolution and diversification of SOA, unifying security, management, and DevOps across SOA, APIs, microser...
Mar. 30, 2015 08:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,065
The webinar, hosted by XebiaLabs, will feature 4 experts including Special Host Gene Kim, author of The Phoenix Project, along with IT thought leaders Gary Gruver, Randy Shoup and XebiaLabs' Andrew Phillips. The panel brings more than 30 years of collective experience surrounding microservices transformations at major companies including Google, eBay and Tripwire. "The story around microservices and containers is pretty compelling and the attraction of more flexibility is obviously alluring,"...
Mar. 30, 2015 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,285
SYS-CON Events announced today that Creative Business Solutions will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Creative Business Solutions is the top stocking authorized HP Renew Distributor in the U.S. Based out of Long Island, NY, Creative Business Solutions offers a one-stop shop for a diverse range of products including Proliant, Blade and Industry Standard Servers, Networking, Server Options and...
Mar. 30, 2015 07:30 AM EDT Reads: 3,846
SYS-CON Events announced today that FierceDevOps will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. FierceDevOps keeps software developers and IT operations personnel updated on the latest news and trends around the rapidly evolving role of the traditional IT worker.
Mar. 30, 2015 02:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,501
GENBAND has announced that SageNet is leveraging the Nuvia platform to deliver Unified Communications as a Service (UCaaS) to its large base of retail and enterprise customers. Nuvia’s cloud-based solution provides SageNet’s customers with a full suite of business communications and collaboration tools. Two large national SageNet retail customers have recently signed up to deploy the Nuvia platform and the company will continue to sell the service to new and existing customers. Nuvia’s capabili...
Mar. 30, 2015 01:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,484
WHOA.com has announced the newest addition to its data center footprint with the expansion into Equinix's newest state-of-the-art facility: DC-11 Washington, DC IBX+. Located in Ashburn, VA, this data center expands Whoa.com's presence to meet rapidly expanding customer demand for secure cloud solutions. Equinix, Inc. operates International Business Exchange™ (IBX®) data centers in 32 markets across 15 countries in the Americas, EMEA, and Asia-Pacific. Equinix is committed to operating faciliti...
Mar. 30, 2015 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,169
SYS-CON Events announced today that the DevOps Institute has been named “Association Sponsor” of SYS-CON's DevOps Summit, which will take place on June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The DevOps Institute provides enterprise level training and certification. Working with thought leaders from the DevOps community, the IT Service Management field and the IT training market, the DevOps Institute is setting the standard in quality for DevOps education and training.
Mar. 29, 2015 10:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,168
SYS-CON Media announced today that @WebRTCSummit Blog, the largest WebRTC resource in the world, has been launched. @WebRTCSummit Blog offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. @WebRTCSummit Blog can be bookmarked ▸ Here @WebRTCSummit conference site can be bookmarked ▸ Here
Mar. 29, 2015 10:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,823
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cisco, the worldwide leader in IT that transforms how people connect, communicate and collaborate, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Cisco makes amazing things happen by connecting the unconnected. Cisco has shaped the future of the Internet by becoming the worldwide leader in transforming how people connect, communicate and collaborat...
Mar. 29, 2015 07:00 PM EDT Reads: 5,255
WSM International is launching a DevOps services division that offers assessment, consulting and implementation to large enterprises and organizations with complex infrastructures. This is the first independent services company to create a dedicated practice to help organizations looking to transition to the DevOps model. The concept of DevOps is to blend information technology (IT) software development with operations to optimize the computing infrastructure according to the specific needs of ...
Mar. 29, 2015 07:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,550
SYS-CON Events announced today that robomq.io will exhibit at SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. robomq.io is an interoperable and composable platform that connects any device to any application. It helps systems integrators and the solution providers build new and innovative products and service for industries requiring monitoring or intelligence from devices and sensors.
Mar. 29, 2015 06:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,496
The WebRTC Summit 2014 New York, to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY, announces that its Call for Papers is open. Topics include all aspects of improving IT delivery by eliminating waste through automated business models leveraging cloud technologies. WebRTC Summit is co-located with 16th International Cloud Expo, @ThingsExpo, Big Data Expo, and DevOps Summit.
Mar. 29, 2015 06:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,616
Temasys has announced senior management additions to its team. Joining are David Holloway as Vice President of Commercial and Nadine Yap as Vice President of Product. Over the past 12 months Temasys has doubled in size as it adds new customers and expands the development of its Skylink platform. Skylink leads the charge to move WebRTC, traditionally seen as a desktop, browser based technology, to become a ubiquitous web communications technology on web and mobile, as well as Internet of Things...
Mar. 29, 2015 06:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,867
Hosted PaaS providers have given independent developers and startups huge advantages in efficiency and reduced time-to-market over their more process-bound counterparts in enterprises. Software frameworks are now available that allow enterprise IT departments to provide these same advantages for developers in their own organization. In his workshop session at DevOps Summit, Troy Topnik, ActiveState’s Technical Product Manager, will show how on-prem or cloud-hosted Private PaaS can enable organ...
Mar. 29, 2015 05:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,295
DevOps tasked with driving success in the cloud need a solution to efficiently leverage multiple clouds while avoiding cloud lock-in. Flexiant today announces the commercial availability of Flexiant Concerto. With Flexiant Concerto, DevOps have cloud freedom to automate the build, deployment and operations of applications consistently across multiple clouds. Concerto is available through four disruptive pricing models aimed to deliver multi-cloud at a price point everyone can afford.
Mar. 29, 2015 05:00 PM EDT Reads: 994
Today, IT is not just a cost center. IT is an enabler and driver of business. With the emergence of the hybrid cloud paradigm, IT now has increasingly more capabilities to create new strategic opportunities for a business. Hybrid cloud allows an organization to utilize multi-tenant public clouds, dedicated private clouds, bare metal hosting, and the associated support and services for the right use cases through an on-demand, XaaS model. This model of IT creates tremendous opportunities for busi...
Mar. 29, 2015 05:00 PM EDT Reads: 3,194
Business as usual for IT is evolving into a “Make or Buy” decision on a service-by-service conversation with input from the LOBs. How does your organization move forward with cloud? In his general session at 16th Cloud Expo, Paul Maravei, Regional Sales Manager, Hybrid Cloud and Managed Services at Cisco, discusses how Cisco and its partners offer a market-leading portfolio and ecosystem of cloud infrastructure and application services that allow you to uniquely and securely combine cloud busi...
Mar. 29, 2015 04:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,443
Docker is an excellent platform for organizations interested in running microservices. It offers portability and consistency between development and production environments, quick provisioning times, and a simple way to isolate services. In his session at DevOps Summit at 16th Cloud Expo, Shannon Williams, co-founder of Rancher Labs, will walk through these and other benefits of using Docker to run microservices, and provide an overview of RancherOS, a minimalist distribution of Linux designed...
Mar. 29, 2015 04:15 PM EDT Reads: 2,447
Businesses are looking to empower employees and departments to do more, go faster, and streamline their processes. For all workers – but mobile workers especially – utilizing the cloud to reconnect documents and improve processes without destructing existing workflows can have a dramatic impact on productivity. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Mark Grilli, vice president of Acrobat Solutions marketing at Adobe Systems Incorporated, will outline new ways that the cloud is changing the way peo...
Mar. 29, 2015 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,348
SYS-CON Events announced today that Vitria Technology, Inc. will exhibit at SYS-CON’s @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Vitria will showcase the company’s new IoT Analytics Platform through live demonstrations at booth #330. Vitria’s IoT Analytics Platform, fully integrated and powered by an operational intelligence engine, enables customers to rapidly build and operationalize advanced analytics to deliver timely business outcomes ...
Mar. 29, 2015 03:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,180